Timeline on Abortion Rights Lawfare in Latin America

This is a timeline of key events regarding the legal battles around abortion rights in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, and Peru) between January 1990 and August 2016. The information has been systematized as part of the Chr. Michelsen Institute’s research project “Abortion Rights Lawfare in Latin America,” financed by the Research Council of Norway. It also contains some key events from countries that were not included in the original research project. Although this list is exhaustive, we acknowledge that it could contain some involuntary omissions.

Date Range


Location

Type of Event: Topic
Advance or restrict abortion rights
Detail

Case Study?

TIME00461

TIME00461
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Statement by a national authority
08-2016
Peru: Three female state ministers (health, women’s affairs, and justice) stated that the morning-after pill is not an abortifacient.

TIME00441

TIME00441
UN System
Regional Americas
Yes
Abortion
Advance
UN recommendation/declaration
04-2016
The Pan American Health Organization issued the document “Zika Ethics Consultation: Ethics Guidance on Key Issues Raised by the Outbreak,” which states that women have a right to decide to continue with their pregnancies in the context of the Zika outbreak, pointing out that governments have an ethical responsibility to allow women to decide among all relevant reproductive options, including access to contraception and abortion.

TIME00442

TIME00442
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
05-2016
El Salvador: Flor Arely González was acquitted of aggravated homicide by the Trial Court of Sonsonate, an offense that she had been charged with after suffering an obstetric emergency in mid-2015.

TIME00443

TIME00443
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
05-2016
El Salvador: In an extraordinary hearing, the Third Tribunal of Sentences recognized that there was not enough evidence to prove that María Teresa Rivera had performed a crime. It thus ruled that her 2012 sentence was a judicial error, and she was freed from prison.

TIME00444

TIME00444
International bodies
ESCR Committee
No
Abortion
Advance
UN recommendation/declaration
05-2016
UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Comment No. 22 on the Right to Sexual and Reproductive Health – “States parties are under immediate obligation to eliminate discrimination against individuals and groups and to guarantee their equal right to sexual and reproductive health. This requires States to repeal or reform laws and policies that nullify or impair the ability of certain individuals and groups to realize their right to sexual and reproductive health. There exists a wide range of laws, policies and practices that undermine autonomy and right to equality and non-discrimination in the full enjoyment of the right to sexual and reproductive health, for example criminalization of abortion or restrictive abortion laws.”

TIME00445

TIME00445
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
05-2016
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: The Center for Reproductive Rights, along with Peruvian organizations Promsex, DEMUS, and Paz y Esperanza, filed a lawsuit challenging Peru’s ban on the distribution of emergency contraception in public hospitals. The lawsuit claimed that the ban denies rape survivors’ access to essential medical treatment following their assault. The case was filed on behalf of Maria, an adolescent who was knocked unconscious, gang raped, and later denied emergency contraception from the public hospital where she was treated. The petition seeks justice and reparations for Maria, as well as an order for the Peruvian government to lift the ban on distribution of emergency contraception in public hospitals.

TIME00446

TIME00446
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-2016
Peru: Presentation of a bill to reform the Penal Code. The bill increases punishment for women who have an abortion. It also requires that rape victims who become pregnant and who decide to have abortions to do community work. Finally, it penalizes doctors who involuntarily cause an abortion when performing a medical intervention to preserve a pregnant woman’s health. Peru: Presentation of a bill to reform the Penal Code. The bill increases punishment for women who have an abortion. It also requires that rape victims who become pregnant and who decide to have abortions to do community work. Finally, it penalizes doctors who involuntarily cause an abortion when performing a medical intervention to preserve a pregnant woman’s health.

TIME00447

TIME00447
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-2016
Peru: Congress’s Constitutional Affairs Commission rejected a reevaluation of the bill presented by the Collective Déjala Decidir seeking to allow legal abortion on the grounds of sexual abuse.

TIME00448

TIME00448
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
05-2016
Peru: Presidential candidate Keiko Fujimori signed a commitment with evangelical leader Pedro Santana promising , if elected, to reject same-sex civil unions, adoption by same-sex couples, and abortion (on all grounds).

TIME00449

TIME00449
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
05-2016
Peru: Presidential candidate Keiko Fujimori stated her opposition to abortion and same-sex civil unions. A few months before, during an event at Harvard, she had stated that she was in favor of same-sex civil unions.

TIME00450

TIME00450
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Statement by a national authority
06-2016
El Salvador: National health authorities confirmed the country’s first case of microcephaly caused by Zika. According to officials, the baby was born to a 20-year-old woman in La Paz.

TIME00451

TIME00451
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
06-2016
Mexico: The Supreme Court rejected a constitutional writ of protection (amparo) 1388/2015 against articles 332 and 334 of the Penal Code, which apply to federal health institutions. The writ was presented by a woman denied access to abortion in a federal health facility. Her reasons for seeking abortion were within the regime of exceptions contemplated by the Penal Code: when the pregnancy threatens the pregnant woman’s physical or mental health, when it is the product of rape or non-consensual insemination, or when the fetus is not viable.

TIME00452

TIME00452
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2016
Peru: Pedro Pablo Kuczynski elected as president.

TIME00453

TIME00453
North America
USA
No
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
06-2016
USA: In a milestone decision, the Supreme Court struck down parts of a restrictive 2013 Texas law that could have drastically reduced the number of abortion clinics in the state. The decision concerned two parts of the law: (1) the part requiring all clinics in the state to meet the standards for ambulatory surgical centers, including regulations concerning buildings, equipment, and staffing, and (2) the part requiring doctors who perform abortions to have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital. According to the Court, the claimed benefits of theses restrictions outweighed the burdens they placed on constitutional rights.

TIME00454

TIME00454
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
07-2016
El Salvador: The attorney general filed an appeal against the court ruling ordering the release of María Teresa Rivera.

TIME00455

TIME00455
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
07-2016
El Salvador: Nationalist Republican Alliance representative Velásquez Parker submitted a motion to reform article 133 of the Penal Code, which stipulates the penalty for women who cause or consent to an abortion. The bill proposes imprisoning women for up to 50 years if they terminate a pregnancy. The current penalty is from two to eight years. The same party has also proposed a reform of the article 139 of Penal Code that seeks to increase penalties for the injuries caused to the unborn.

TIME00456

TIME00456
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Litigation
07-2016
Peru: The organization Promsex filed a lawsuit against evangelical leader Alberto Santana for publicly promoting discrimination. The lawsuit claimed that Santana violated article 323 of the Penal Code when, during a public event in support of presidential candidate Keiko Fujimori, he stated that homosexuality is an aberration, homosexuals are the source of diseases, and homosexuals do not deserve rights.

TIME00457

TIME00457
International bodies
UN System
No
Critical event
Advance
UN recommendation/declaration
07-2016
UN: The United Nations Human Rights Council approved a resolution to establish a new watchdog for discrimination and violence against LGBTQI people.

TIME00458

TIME00458
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
08-2016
Brazil: A petition was filed asking the Brazilian state to guarantee the reproductive rights of women during the Zika epidemic. It also asked for the state to ensure women’s access to information, their access to long-term contraceptive methods in the public health system, the provision of repellent as part of prenatal check-ups, access to the best test currently available to meet the risks they are facing, the right to choose to keep or terminate a pregnancy (when clinically diagnosed with Zika), and, in the case of the birth of babies with microcephaly, access to economic support.

TIME00459

TIME00459
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Presidential impeachment
08-2016
Brazil: Impeachment of President Rousseff.

TIME00460

TIME00460
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
08-2016
Peru: A court in Lima ordered the Ministry of Health to distribute the morning-after pill at public health care clinics across the country. The case was filed by Violeta Cristina Gómez Hinostroza and Promsex. In its decision, the court referred to the definition of conception adopted by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in its ruling in Artavia Murillo et al. v. Costa Rica.

TIME00421

TIME00421
International bodies
UNHRC
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
10-2015
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: At its 156th session, civil society groups presented a report on women in El Salvador who had been deprived of their liberty after suffering obstetric emergencies. The report was presented by the Citizens’ Group for the Decriminalization of Abortion, the Feminist Collective for Local Development, and the Center for Reproductive Rights.

TIME00422

TIME00422
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
11-2015
Colombia: The Constitutional Court issued Sentence C-683/15 recognizing same-sex couples’ right to adopt.

TIME00423

TIME00423
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Decision/report from public institution (excludes ministries, judicial bodies)
11-2015
El Salvador: The human rights ombudsman determined that María Teresa Rivera, sentenced to 40 years in prison, had suffered violations of her rights to equality and non-discrimination, and to due process.

TIME00424

TIME00424
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
12-2015
Argentina: Mauricio Macri elected president in the run-off.

TIME00425

TIME00425
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
12-2015
Peru: National authorities agreed to provide economic compensation to L.C., recognizing the obligations outlined in the decision issued by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.

TIME00426

TIME00426
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Statement by a national authority
01-2016
El Salvador: The Ministry of Health called on women to avoid becoming pregnant during 2016 and 2017 in light of the Zika virus, which is believed to cause microcephaly in fetuses.

TIME00427

TIME00427
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Institutional reform
01-2016
Mexico: Congress published the Declaration of Constitutional Reform for the Political Reform of the Federal District to convert the Federal District into the 32nd state of the republic. During the Constitutional Assembly, delegates discussed the question of whether to include sexual and reproductive rights such as legal abortion and same-sex marriage in the new Constitution. Mexico: Congress published the Declaration of Constitutional Reform for the Political Reform of the Federal District to convert the Federal District into the 32nd state of the republic. During the Constitutional Assembly, delegates discussed the question of whether to include sexual and reproductive rights such as legal abortion and same-sex marriage in the new Constitution. Mexico: Congress published the Declaration of Constitutional Reform for the Political Reform of the Federal District to convert the Federal District into the 32nd state of the republic. During the Constitutional Assembly, delegates discussed the question of whether to include sexual and reproductive rights such as legal abortion and same-sex marriage in the new Constitution.

TIME00428

TIME00428
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
01-2016
Peru: National authorities agreed to provide economic compensation to K.L., recognizing the obligations outlined in the decision issued by the UN Human Rights Committee.

TIME00429

TIME00429
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
02-2016
Colombia: Attorney General Ordoñez filed an action of annulment against Sentence C-754/2015, which instructs the Ministry of Health to create a protocol for victims of sexual violence. With this action, the attorney general sought to allow health care providers to refuse to perform certain practices contained in the sentence, such as HIV tests and legal abortion. The Constitutional Court denied the action.

TIME00430

TIME00430
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement by a national authority
02-2016
El Salvador: Minister of Health Violeta Menjívar declared that the ministry will not ask Congress to authorize therapeutic abortion for pregnant women infected by Zika whose fetuses present abnormalities.

TIME00431

TIME00431
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
02-2016
Mexico: The Attorney General’s Office announced that members of its Criminal Investigation Agency had detained Jorge Joaquín Ignacio Serrano Limón, head of the organization Pro-Vida, for alleged embezzlement of public funds. He remains on bail.

TIME00432

TIME00432
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
02-2016
Mexico: Administrative Norm 046-SSA2-2005 (NOM-046) reformed to facilitate access to abortion for victims of rape; health authorities can no longer demand that these victims provide judicial authorization in order to access abortion.

TIME00433

TIME00433
Latin America and the Caribbean
Chile
No
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
03-2016
Chile: The Chamber of Deputies approved a draft bill allowing abortion under three circumstances: in cases of rape, risk to the pregnant woman’s health, and when the fetus is no longer considered viable. The bill is awaiting approval by the Senate.

TIME00434

TIME00434
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
03-2016
Colombia: Issuing of Resolution 0652/2016 ordering that voluntary abortions performed under the exceptions outlined in Sentence C-355/2006 shall not be reported to the Civil Registration System via a fetal death certificate.

TIME00435

TIME00435
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
03-2016
Peru: The archbishop from Arequipa, Javier del Río Alba, urged followers not to vote for two presidential candidates, Alfredo Barnechea and Veronika Mendoza, because they support same-sex marriage and the decriminalization of abortion.

TIME00436

TIME00436
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
03-2016
Peru: 79 candidates for Congress from various political movements signed a commitment “for life and against abortion.”

TIME00437

TIME00437
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
04-2016
Argentina: Belen, a woman who suffered a miscarriage at 22 weeks, was convicted of murder and sentenced to eight years in prison by a criminal court in Tucumán. Despite having a diagnosed miscarriage, she had been reported by health workers.

TIME00438

TIME00438
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
04-2016
Colombia: Sentence SU-214/16 – The magistrates of the Constitutional Court voted six to three against a proposed ruling indicating that marriage applied only to unions between a man and a woman and that it was up to Congress (and not the court) to decide on same-sex marriage.

TIME00439

TIME00439
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Court ruling
04-2016
El Salvador: The Trial Court of Sonsonate granted provisional freedom to Flor Arely Sánchez, a woman who was charged with aggravated homicide after suffering a premature delivery and who faces up to 40 years in prison. This represents the first time a court has provided a measure of this type.

TIME00440

TIME00440
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-2016
Peru: General elections (president and Congress).

TIME00401

TIME00401
International bodies
UNHRC
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
10-2014
UN: 12 countries denounced El Salvador’s total criminalization of abortion as part of the Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review.

TIME00402

TIME00402
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
12-2014
Argentina: The Center for Legal and Social Studies, Amnesty International, and the Latin American Group for Gender and Justice filed a lawsuit to require the Ministry of Health to ensure necessary medical services for the practice of legal abortion nationwide.

TIME00403

TIME00403
Africa
Regional Africa
No
Abortion
Advance
Government-level conference commitment/declaration
12-2014
Addis Ababa Declaration on Accelerating the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action: Declaration issued by African government ministers responsible for gender and women’s affairs. The declaration calls on states to “expand the provision of family planning services and contraceptives and access to safe and legal abortion services in accordance with national laws and policies, and protect the reproductive rights of women by authorizing medical abortion in the case of sexual assault, rape, incest, in line with the Maputo Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.”

TIME00404

TIME00404
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
01-2015
Brazil: Second-term inauguration of President Rousseff (Workers’ Party). For her second term, she had a considerably weaker mandate.

TIME00405

TIME00405
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Legal reform
01-2015
El Salvador: Congress approved a pardon for one of Las 17, Guadalupe, who was sentenced to 30 years in prison after having a miscarriage. 

TIME00406

TIME00406
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
04-2015
Argentina: The technical guide for non-punishable abortion care was revised, including several changes to its content and a different title.

TIME00407

TIME00407
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
04-2015
El Salvador: Carmelina Pérez was declared innocent after a hearing in a court in the city of La Unión. She had been sentenced to 30 years in prison for homicide after suffering a miscarriage.

TIME00408

TIME00408
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
International bodies recommendations/declarations
04-2015
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: The commission issued a formal letter to the Salvadoran government requesting a response to a petition filed by the Center for Reproductive Rights, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion, and the Feminist Collective for Local Development in March 2010 regarding the Manuela Case.

TIME00409

TIME00409
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
04-2015
Mexico: The Supreme Court initiated Action of Unconstitutionality 41/2013 presented by Tlaxcala’s Human Rights Commission demanding the derogation of article 243 of its Penal Code, which criminalizes abortion. In August, the action was suspended because the local congress approved reforms expanding the regime of exceptions for legal abortion.

TIME00410

TIME00410
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
04-2015
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Tlaxcala reformed its Penal Code to expand the regime of exceptions to include genetic malformations or severe birth defects, although abortion still requires parental consent. Tlaxcala became the state with the most extensive regime of exceptions.

TIME00411

TIME00411
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-2015
Peru: Congress rejected a bill to expand the legal grounds for abortion and to ensure rape victims’ access to abortion.

TIME00412

TIME00412
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
07-2015
Colombia: The Council of State annulled the decrees restricting the sale of misoprostol.

TIME00413

TIME00413
International bodies
ESCR Committee
No
Abortion
Advance
UN recommendation/declaration
07-2015
The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights called on the Ugandan government to reform and clarify its laws severely restricting abortion services.

TIME00414

TIME00414
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
08-2015
Colombia: Constitutional Court Decision T-478/15 (Sergio Urrego Case) – The ruling prohibits schools from discriminating on the grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity.

TIME00415

TIME00415
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Debate over legal reform
08-2015
Colombia: Presentation of a bill (number 64/15) extending maternity leave to 18 weeks and paternity leave to 15 weeks.

TIME00416

TIME00416
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Debate over legal reform
08-2015
Colombia: Presentation of a bill (number 55/15) seeking to regulate artificial insemination, thereby allowing IVF.

TIME00417

TIME00417
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Debate over legal reform
08-2015
Colombia: Presentation of a bill (number 20/15 S) creating a sexual and reproductive rights observatory that will produce information on sexual and reproductive rights and develop public policies to address women’s sexual and reproductive health, maternal morbidity and mortality, and teenage pregnancy.

TIME00418

TIME00418
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
09-2015
USA & El Salvador: Representatives Debbie Wasserman Schultz and Norma J. Torres delivered a letter signed by 55 members of US Congress to the Secretary of State, John Kerry, requesting a review of human rights violations of women in El Salvador.

TIME00419

TIME00419
Catholic organizations
Global
No
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
09-2015
World Meeting of Families held in Philadelphia.

TIME00420

TIME00420
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
10-2015
Peru: Presidential candidate Keiko Fujimori stated in a presentation at Harvard University that she supports same-sex civil unions, opposes adoption by same-sex couples, and opposes abortion. She stated that the only circumstance in which she supports abortion is to save a woman’s life.

TIME00381

TIME00381
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
No
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
10-2013
Inter-American human rights system: Public Hearing Addressing Restrictions on Emergency Contraception at the 149th Period of Sessions of the Commission.

TIME00382

TIME00382
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Debate over legal reform
11-2013
Colombia: Presentation of a bill, 147/13 S, seeking to create a sexual and reproductive rights observatory whose aim is to “analyze, identify, and select the variables that should be contained in the system of demographic statistics and which must be taken into account for the design, development, implementation, and evaluation and monitoring of public policies on women’s sexual and reproductive health, as well as the identification of the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, teenage pregnancy, and diseases related to sexual and reproductive health.”

TIME00383

TIME00383
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
12-2013
Inter-American human rights system: The Feminist Collective for Local Development in El Salvador, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion, IPAS Central America, and the Center for Justice and International Law filed a lawsuit against El Salvador before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, alleging the violation of Beatriz’s human rights.

TIME00384

TIME00384
Latin America and the Caribbean
Bolivia
No
Critical event
Advance
Litigation
02-2014
Bolivia: Decision 0206/2014 issued, eliminating barriers to access to safe abortion for victims of sexual violence and in cases of therapeutic abortion.

TIME00385

TIME00385
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
General election
03-2014
El Salvador: Salvador Sánchez Cerén (FMLN) elected president in the run-off.

TIME00386

TIME00386
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement by a national authority
03-2014
El Salvador: The archbishop of El Salvador, a key actor in the 1997 process regarding the absolute abortion ban, made newspaper headlines after calling on candidates to commit to legislating against abortion. At the peak of the electoral campaign, the then president Mauricio Funes (FMLN) declared his opposition to abortion.

TIME00387

TIME00387
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
03-2014
Peru: The archbishop of Lima, Juan Luis Cipriani, called for a referendum to determine the legality of therapeutic abortion and same-sex unions.

TIME00388

TIME00388
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
04-2014
El Salvador: The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion, with the support of international human rights organizations and following in the footsteps of the feminist organization Las Libres de México, launched the campaign known as Las 17. This campaign involves 17 pardon requests presented on behalf of women who have been unjustly convicted of homicide after suffering obstetric emergencies late in their pregnancies.

TIME00389

TIME00389
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
04-2014
El Salvador: The Supreme Court rejected the action of unconstitutionality filed against the total abortion ban.

TIME00390

TIME00390
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
05-2014
Brazil: PL 7633 – Presentation of a bill by Deputy Jean Wyllys (PSOL/RJ) regulating the “humanization of the assistance provided to the woman and her newborn during the postpartum period.”

TIME00391

TIME00391
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Social mobilization
05-2014
Colombia: The eighth March for the Right to Life was held in 20 cities throughout the country and with the participation of approximately 90,000 people. This mobilization sought to denounce the open promotion of abortion by state agencies, the funding of abortion with resources from the public health system, and pressure on medical personnel to practice abortions against their conscience.

TIME00392

TIME00392
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Social mobilization
05-2014
Colombia: Action for unconstitutionality filed against article 23 of Law 1719. According to this law, the protocol on care for victims of sexual violence is optional and not mandatory. The action of unconstitutionality, filed by La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de Las Mujeres, Women’s Link, HUMANAS, Dejusticia, and the Casa de la Mujer, argued that having an optional protocol is retrogressive, is discriminatory, and reinforces gender stereotypes.

TIME00393

TIME00393
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Social mobilization
05-2014
Peru: Congressman Carlos Bruce declared publicly that he is gay. He is the first Peruvian congressman to make such a declaration. Bruce has been supporting the bill to allow same-sex unions.

TIME00394

TIME00394
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
05-2014
Brazil: The Ministry of Health issued Ordinance 415/2014 including legal abortion in the list of special services provided by the public health system. The value of R$443 (around US$140) was established for the procedure.

TIME00395

TIME00395
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Executive decree or policy reform
05-2014
Brazil: The Ministry of Health issued Ordinance 437/2014 revoking several other ordinances, including Ordinance 415/2014, which lasted only one week.

TIME00396

TIME00396
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2014
Colombia: Juan Manuel Santos elected president in the run-off.

TIME00397

TIME00397
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
06-2014
Colombia: Modification of Law 1719 of 2014. The reform included measures to ensure access to justice for victims of sexual violence, especially that related to the armed conflict, and to provide free and comprehensive health care to such victims.

TIME00398

TIME00398
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
07-2014
Colombia: Sentence T-532/2014. The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life, arguing that the pregnancy was affecting her psychological health and that she did not have the financial resources to maintain another child (at the time, she had a six-year-old daughter). Her health care provider failed to offer efficient and timely services. The Constitutional Court urged Congress to issue a regulation establishing a maximum period for studying and approving abortion requests.

TIME00399

TIME00399
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
08-2014
El Salvador: El Salvador’s abortion situation was presented before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights during its 152nd extraordinary session. The report was jointly presented by the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion, the Feminist Collective for Local Development, the September 28 Campaign, the Women’s Global Network for Reproductive Rights, and the Center for Justice and International Law.

TIME00400

TIME00400
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
08-2014
Peru: Enactment of national guidelines on the provision of therapeutic abortion services in health facilities.

TIME00361

TIME00361
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
02-2013
Brazil: PL 5069 – Presentation of a bill characterizing abortion-related advertising as a crime against life and providing specific penalties for those who induce pregnant women to practice abortions.

TIME00362

TIME00362
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
03-2013
Brazil: The Federal Medical Council and 27 presidents of regional councils officially voice their support for the decriminalization of abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy.

TIME00363

TIME00363
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Court ruling
03-2013
El Salvador: A Salvadoran judge granted pardon to “Mary,” a 27-year-old woman with a mental disability who was sentenced to prison for ending a pregnancy. Following her sentencing, Mary attempted suicide. She served six months’ time.

TIME00364

TIME00364
Latin America and the Caribbean
Nicaragua
No
Critical event
Restrict
Legal reform
03-2013
Nicaragua: Ratification of the Family Code that explicitly excludes LGBTQI families.

TIME00365

TIME00365
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
04-2013
Brazil: The General Magistrate of Justice of Rio de Janeiro issued a ruling authorizing marriage equality in the state.

TIME00366

TIME00366
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
04-2013
Brazil: The Ministry of Health issued Ordinance 528/2013 establishing that medical support be provided for those seeking legal abortion-

TIME00367

TIME00367
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
04-2013
El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed an amparo before the Supreme Court on behalf of Beatriz, a 22-year-old woman who was seriously ill and pregnant with an anencephalic fetus. In line with this move, both the minister of health, María Isabel Rodríguez, and the board of directors at the hospital where Beatriz was hospitalized voiced their public support for the claimant. The case’s great media impact, both nationally and internationally, not only gave way to an intense debate in the public sphere but also facilitated the alliances that the Citizens’ Coalition had been building up until then.

TIME00368

TIME00368
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
05-2013
Brazil: The National Justice Council voted 14 to 1 in favor of a resolution introduced by Chief Justice Joaquim Barbosa requiring all notaries in the nation to perform same-sex marriages.

TIME00369

TIME00369
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
05-2013
El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the amparo, arguing that the Constitution protects life from conception. El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the amparo, arguing that the Constitution protects life from conception. El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the amparo, arguing that the Constitution protects life from conception. El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the amparo, arguing that the Constitution protects life from conception. El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the amparo, arguing that the Constitution protects life from conception. El Salvador: Beatriz Case – The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the amparo, arguing that the Constitution protects life from conception.

TIME00370

TIME00370
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Decision of international body
05-2013
Inter-American human rights system: Beatriz Case – One day after the Supreme Court’s ruling denying the amparo, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights requested that the Salvadoran government make the necessary medical decisions to ensure the adequate protection of Beatriz’s rights to life and personal integrity. This request amounted to a request for an abortion, in line with the recommendations of Beatriz’s doctors. Inter-American human rights system: Beatriz Case – One day after the Supreme Court’s ruling denying the amparo, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights requested that the Salvadoran government make the necessary medical decisions to ensure the adequate protection of Beatriz’s rights to life and personal integrity. This request amounted to a request for an abortion, in line with the recommendations of Beatriz’s doctors. Inter-American human rights system: Beatriz Case – One day after the Supreme Court’s ruling denying the amparo, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights requested that the Salvadoran government make the necessary medical decisions to ensure the adequate protection of Beatriz’s rights to life and personal integrity. This request amounted to a request for an abortion, in line with the recommendations of Beatriz’s doctors. Inter-American human rights system: Beatriz Case – One day after the Supreme Court’s ruling denying the amparo, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights requested that the Salvadoran government make the necessary medical decisions to ensure the adequate protection of Beatriz’s rights to life and personal integrity. This request amounted to a request for an abortion, in line with the recommendations of Beatriz’s doctors. Inter-American human rights system: Beatriz Case – One day after the Supreme Court’s ruling denying the amparo, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights requested that the Salvadoran government make the necessary medical decisions to ensure the adequate protection of Beatriz’s rights to life and personal integrity. This request amounted to a request for an abortion, in line with the recommendations of Beatriz’s doctors. Inter-American human rights system: Beatriz Case – One day after the Supreme Court’s ruling denying the amparo, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights requested that the Salvadoran government make the necessary medical decisions to ensure the adequate protection of Beatriz’s rights to life and personal integrity. This request amounted to a request for an abortion, in line with the recommendations of Beatriz’s doctors.

TIME00371

TIME00371
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
05-2013
Peru: Civil society organizations presented 60,000 signatures before Congress in support of the decriminalization of abortion in cases of rape. The signatures were collected as part of the Déjala Decidir campaign.

TIME00372

TIME00372
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
06-2013
Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital presented a demand before the Council of State requesting the annulment of Report 0003 of 2011 made by the Superintendence of Health.

TIME00373

TIME00373
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Debate over legal reform
07-2013
Peru: Parliament rejected a bill against hate crimes filed by Congressman Carlos Bruce; 58 representatives voted against the bill, 27 voted in favor, and 18 abstained.

TIME00374

TIME00374
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
08-2013
Brazil: PL 6022 – Presentation of a bill amending Law 12845/2013 to provide for the mandatory and comprehensive care to victims of sexual violence.

TIME00375

TIME00375
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
08-2013
Brazil: PL 6115 – Presentation of a bill requiring a forensic examination proving rape before an abortion can be performed.

TIME00376

TIME00376
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
08-2013
Brazil: Enactment of Federal Law 12845/2013 regulating the required and comprehensive care for victims of sexual violence.

TIME00377

TIME00377
Latin America and the Caribbean
Regional Americas
Yes
Abortion
Regional
Government-level conference commitment/declaration
08-2013
Adoption of Montevideo Consensus on Population and Development calling on states “to consider amending their laws, regulations, strategies and public policies relating to the voluntary termination of pregnancy in order to protect the lives and health of women and adolescent girls, to improve their quality of life and to reduce the number of abortions.”

TIME00378

TIME00378
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
09-2013
Argentina: Pro Familia Case – The Supreme Court issued a new decision in the case of a rape victim who had faced obstructions in accessing a legal abortion. The decision confirmed the state’s obligation to guarantee access to non-punishable abortions and ordered an investigation into all people involved in obstructing a non-punishable abortion in the City of Buenos Aires.

TIME00379

TIME00379
Latin America and the Caribbean
Costa Rica
No
Critical event
Restrict
Court ruling
09-2013
Costa Rica: A judge closed an “accidental” loophole in a law passed earlier in the year that could have allowed same-sex unions.

TIME00380

TIME00380
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
09-2013
Peru: The Bishop of Piura, José Antonio Eguren, presented 60,000 signatures before Congress against therapeutic abortion.

TIME00341

TIME00341
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
03-2012
Argentina: Decision F-259/2012 – The Supreme Court adopted a broad interpretation of the Penal Code, allowing abortion in cases of rape for all women.

TIME00342

TIME00342
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
03-2012
Argentina: F., A. L. Case – In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court ruled that rape victims, whether with or without a mental handicap, have a right to legal abortion without judicial authorization and without fear of subsequent criminal sanction.

TIME00343

TIME00343
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
03-2012
Colombia: The Office of the General Attorney filed a claim before the Constitutional Court requesting the annulment of Sentence T-841/2011, which ruled in favor of a woman’s request for abortion for her minor daughter and ordered the health care provider to provide compensation for having denied the procedure and to bear the costs of the newborn’s medical treatment. The Constitutional Court denied the claim for annulment.

TIME00344

TIME00344
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
03-2012
El Salvador: The Center for Reproductive Rights and the Feminist Collective for Local Development filed a lawsuit before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights on behalf of “Manuela,” a women sentenced to 30 years in prison after suffering an obstetric emergency that ended in a miscarriage.

TIME00345

TIME00345
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
04-2012
Brazil: ADPF 54 – The Supreme Court issued a decision on therapeutic abortion in cases of anencephaly.

TIME00346

TIME00346
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Restrict
Social mobilization
04-2012
Mexico: Presidential candidate Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI) declared that the issue of marriage equality should be decided on by individual states of the federation.

TIME00347

TIME00347
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
05-2012
Brazil: The Ministry of Health issued the third edition of its technical norms on the “prevention and treatment of damages resulting from sexual violence against women and adolescents,” which once again confirmed that rape victims do not need to present a police report in order to obtain a legal abortion.

TIME00348

TIME00348
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
06-2012
Brazil: Publication of the draft of the new Penal Code in which abortion and euthanasia are allowed and regulated.

TIME00349

TIME00349
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
07-2012
Mexico: Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI) confirmed as elected president by the Federal Electoral Tribunal.

TIME00350

TIME00350
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
08-2012
Colombia: Constitutional Court issued decision T-627/12 finding that Attorney General Ordoñez and Deputy Attorneys Hoyos and Carreño had provided false information on reproductive rights and threatened or violated the right to access reproductive health services, including abortion services. In its decision, the court ordered the attorney general and his deputies to correct the false information they had published.

TIME00351

TIME00351
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Court ruling
08-2012
El Salvador: After having spent more than seven years in prison, Sonia Tábora was released following a review of her sentence. The judges did not admit to any judicial error and did not award her compensation or exonerate her. She had been sentenced to 30 years in prison for murder after going into premature labor. Her family had found her collapsed on the floor, hemorrhaging, and in a state of shock, and had taken her to a health center in search of help. Her attending physician accused her of provoking an abortion and reported her to the police.

TIME00352

TIME00352
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
10-2012
Argentina: Pro Familia Case – A woman who had escaped from human trafficking requested a legal abortion after becoming pregnant during her time of sexual exploitation. The conservative organization Pro Familia filed an injunction and successfully blocked the procedure.

TIME00353

TIME00353
International bodies
Inter American Human Rights System
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
10-2012
El Salvador: The Center for Reproductive Rights and the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion filed a request before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights asking for a precautionary measure in favor of “Mary,” a 27-year-old woman with a mental disability who was sentenced to prison for terminating a pregnancy. Mary attempted suicide following her sentencing.

TIME00354

TIME00354
Latin America and the Caribbean
Uruguay
No
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
10-2012
Uruguay: Enactment of the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy Act, which permits abortion without restriction as to reason during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and up to the 14th week if the pregnancy results from rape.

TIME00355

TIME00355
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
11-2012
Brazil: Bahia allowed for same-sex marriage after a court ruling in the state.

TIME00356

TIME00356
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
11-2012
Colombia: Alejandro Ordoñez, a conservative Catholic linked to the Legionarios de Cristo, was appointed for a second term as attorney general.

TIME00357

TIME00357
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Executive decree or policy reform
11-2012
Colombia: Bogota’s Secretariat of Health issued Regulation 43/2012 specifying technical guidelines for the provision of abortion services.

TIME00358

TIME00358
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
11-2012
Colombia: During congressional debates regarding the possibility of re-electing Alejandro Ordoñez as attorney general, La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de Las Mujeres presented a statement highlighting various actions and declarations of Ordoñez in opposition to sexual and reproductive rights.

TIME00359

TIME00359
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
12-2012
Mexico: The Supreme Court unanimously struck down an article in Oaxaca’s Civil Code asserting marriage as occurring only between a man and a woman.

TIME00360

TIME00360
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Litigation
01-2013
Colombia: Lawyer Hernando Salcedo Tamayo filed an action of annulment against the Ministry of Health’s authorization of the inclusion of misoprostol in the country’s obligatory health plan, arguing that the ministry “aims to include a medication that not is pharmacological, because it ends life and, in addition, is forbidden from being supplied to minors under 14 years of age.”

TIME00321

TIME00321
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
05-2011
Brazil: Justices of the Supreme Federal Court voted ten to zero in favor of same-sex unions.

TIME00322

TIME00322
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
05-2011
El Salvador: Creation of the Right to Decide Collective, an alliance comprising 12 feminist organizations from El Salvador whose aim is to strengthen actions in favor of the legalization of abortion.

TIME00323

TIME00323
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
05-2011
Peru: The first March for Life took place, in Lima. It was established as an annual event.

TIME00324

TIME00324
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
06-2011
Brazil: A Sao Paulo judge converted a civil union into the nation’s first same-sex marriage.

TIME00325

TIME00325
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-2011
Brazil: PL 1545 – Presentation of a bill criminalizing any abortion practiced by a doctor when it does not fall under the exceptions outlined in the Penal Code.

TIME00326

TIME00326
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
06-2011
Brazil: PL 1618 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to provide information and guidance on contraception and abortion.

TIME00327

TIME00327
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
06-2011
Colombia: In a unanimous vote, the nine justices of the Constitutional Court ruled that homosexual couples have the right to “form a family” and gave Congress two years to create a law recognizing same-sex unions.

TIME00328

TIME00328
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2011
Peru: General elections (president and Congress): Ollanta Humala elected president in the run-off.

TIME00329

TIME00329
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
08-2011
Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments. Colombia: Sentence T-636/2011 (Armenia) – The claimant, A.A., requested an abortion due to the strong likelihood of fetal malformation (as she suffered from epilepsy and the drugs she was taking could adversely affect her pregnancy). Her request was denied by two different courts and was then appealed to the Constitutional Court. After further medical examinations, however, she discovered that the fetus did not have any malformations, and she withdrew her request. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on A.A.’s case, deciding (1) to revoke the denials of the first and second instance courts and (2) to warn the health care provider of its obligation to observe the provisions of Sentence C-355 and refrain from making unwarranted value judgments.

TIME00330

TIME00330
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
09-2011
Mexico: The Supreme Court ruled that the amendments declaring the right to life from the moment of conception from Baja California (11/2009) and San Luis Potosi (62/2009) were within the constitutional order.

TIME00331

TIME00331
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
10-2011
Brazil: Supreme Federal Court ruled that a lesbian couple could legally marry.

TIME00332

TIME00332
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
10-2011
Colombia: The Constitutional Court issued Sentence T-841/2011 denying the declaration of invalidity requested by Attorney General Ordoñez and confirming mental health as a grounds for legal abortion.

TIME00333

TIME00333
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
10-2011
Colombia: Bill 06/11 presented by a coalition of the Conservative Party seeking to “guarantee all human beings equal protection of the right to life.” La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de Las Mujeres lobbied the Office of the High Counsellor for Women, provided legal concepts to members of Congress, participated in a public hearing, and helped facilitate agreements and alliances among different civil society groups. The bill was withdrawn later that year.

TIME00334

TIME00334
International bodies
CEDAW
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Decision of international body
11-2011
The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued its decision in L.C. v. Peru.

TIME00335

TIME00335
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
11-2011
Colombia: Sentence T-841/2011 – B.B. requested an abortion for her 12-year-old daughter, A.A., on the grounds that the pregnancy put her life at risk. A.A.’s health care provider denied the request, and first and second instance courts upheld the denial. Eventually, A.A. gave birth. Her case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, whose ruling set a constitutional precedent insofar as it declared that the identify of women who request an abortion should be withheld in judicial processes, in order to promote access to health and justice. The ruling also ordered the health care provider to pay damages to A.A. and upheld women’s fundamental right to abortion.

TIME00336

TIME00336
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
12-2011
Argentina: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner re-elected president.

TIME00337

TIME00337
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
12-2011
Brazil: A court in Alagoas made marriage licenses available to same-sex couples at all registries throughout the state.

TIME00338

TIME00338
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
12-2011
Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action. Colombia: Sentence T-959/2011 – Due to an illness that she was suffering, X.X. requested an abortion from her health care provider on the grounds that the pregnancy could endanger her life and health. She was denied the procedure. Finally, after filing a tutela, she received a caesarean section. The Constitutional Court reiterated the obligation of health care providers to refrain from imposing obstacles or unnecessary barriers to women’s access to abortion. However, it also considered that the caesarean section had resolved the issue and, as a result, declared the lawsuit inadmissible due to a lack of cause of action.

TIME00339

TIME00339
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Social mobilization
01-2012
Colombia: Parents’ associations mobilized against the program on sexuality education and the construction of citizenship (an initiative led by the Ministry of Education and the United Nations Population Fund) based on the grounds of autonomy with regard to childrearing, respect for the customs and culture of families, and the fundamental freedoms of parents.

TIME00340

TIME00340
Latin America and the Caribbean
Honduras
No
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
02-2012
Honduras: The Honduras Supreme Court upheld the country’s ban on emergency contraception, which was passed by Congress in April 2009. On October 2009, following the country’s military coup, the de facto minister of health issued an administrative regulation banning emergency contraception, despite not yet having a ruling from the Supreme Court that would allow criminal enforcement of the ban.

TIME00301

TIME00301
Latin America and the Caribbean
Costa Rica
No
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
08-2010
Costa Rica: The Constitutional Court denied a Catholic Church-supported national referendum on same-sex civil unions. Approximately 150,000 voters had signed a petition in favor of the referendum

TIME00302

TIME00302
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
08-2010
Mexico: The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Mexico City’s same-sex marriage bill and required all states to recognize marriages that take place in the city.

TIME00303

TIME00303
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
09-2010
Argentina: Scholars from throughout the country issued a statement in favor of abortion.

TIME00304

TIME00304
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
09-2010
Argentina: Legal scholars across the country declared their support for the right to abortion via a technical opinion of the Argentine Association of Professors of Criminal Law.

TIME00305

TIME00305
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
10-2010
Argentina: Presentation of a bill declaring the uterus as a protected site.

TIME00306

TIME00306
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
10-2010
Brazil: Presidential candidate Dilma Rousseff published a document committing herself, if elected, to not propose any changes in regulations on abortion or other topics related to family and religious worship.

TIME00307

TIME00307
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
10-2010
Brazil: A Federal court nullified a decree from Rio de Janeiro requiring women who become pregnant as a result of rape to present a police report in order to obtain a legal abortion in the public health system.

TIME00308

TIME00308
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
10-2010
Peru: Decision 1216-2009 – A second instance court from Lima (Third Civil Chamber of the Superior Court of Justice of Lima) decided against a claim filed against the Ministry of Health for neglecting to issue and implement the Therapeutic Abortion Guidelines.

TIME00309

TIME00309
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
10-2010
Brazil: Dilma Rousseff elected president.

TIME00310

TIME00310
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
11-2010
Argentina: Public hearing on abortion held in the Chamber of Deputies.

TIME00311

TIME00311
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
12-2010
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Tamaulipas amended its Constitution to protect the right to life from the moment of conception to natural death.

TIME00312

TIME00312
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
01-2011
Colombia: Development of a proposal within Bogota’s Secretariat of Health to demand that death certificates be issued for aborted fetuses. In the face of this initiative, La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de Las Mujeres contacted key stakeholders to block the proposal. In a way, this was achieved in Resolution 436 of 2011, which does not require death certificates for such cases.

TIME00313

TIME00313
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
01-2011
Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital demanded the annulment of regulations 0058 of November 27, 2009, and 000003 of September 27, 2011, issued by the Superintendence of Health. A court decided that the Superintendence of Health did not have the power to regulate the provision of abortion services and declared the regulations invalid.

TIME00314

TIME00314
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
02-2011
Peru: Presidential candidate Pedro Pablo Kuczynski signed a commitment in which he promised to reject abortion (except in cases of life-threatening situations) and to recognize the value of the “natural family” (i.e., only those unions comprising a woman and a man).

TIME00315

TIME00315
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement/commitment by candidate during electoral campaign
03-2011
Peru: In a meeting with the archbishop of Lima and a leader of the Peruvian Catholic Church, presidential candidate Ollanta Humala confirmed his conservative Catholic upbringing, his commitment to respecting family values as defined by the Catholic Church, and his position against abortion and same-sex marriage.

TIME00316

TIME00316
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
04-2011
Brazil: PL 1190 – Presentation of a bill establishing a national “Day of the Unborn” to be celebrated on 8 October, and other measures.

TIME00317

TIME00317
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
04-2011
Brazil: PL 1085 – Presentation of a bill providing assistance for victims of rape who wish to obtain a legal abortion.

TIME00318

TIME00318
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
04-2011
Colombia: The Constitutional Court recognized inheritance rights for people in same-sex unions.

TIME00319

TIME00319
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-2011
Peru: General elections (president and Congress).

TIME00320

TIME00320
International bodies
UNHRC
No
Abortion
Advance
Decision of international body
04-2011
The UN Human Rights Committee issued its ruling in L.M.R. v. Argentina, ruling against the government of Argentina.

TIME00281

TIME00281
Latin America and the Caribbean
Nicaragua
No
Critical event
Advance
Institutional reform
12-2009
Nicaragua: Samira Montiel was named as the first ombudsperson for sexual diversity.

TIME00282

TIME00282
International bodies
UN System
No
Critical event
Advance
UN recommendation/declaration
12-2009
The UN General Assembly affirmed that international human rights protections include sexual orientation and gender identity. The statement was read aloud to the General Assembly by Argentina; 12 of the 66 countries that were signatories were Latin American. 

TIME00283

TIME00283
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
12-2009
Brazil: Federal Decree 7037/2009 approved the National Human Rights Plan recommending that abortion be treated as a case of public health and that a monitoring system for cases of legal abortion be established. The plan also pushes for the decriminalization of abortion, recognizing women’s right to decide over their bodies.

TIME00284

TIME00284
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
02-2010
Argentina: F.A.L. Case – An abortion was requested by the mother of a 15-year-old girl who became pregnant after being abused by her stepfather. After both a family court and a court of appeals rejected the request, she appealed to the highest provincial court, which authorized an abortion. Following the provincial court’s ruling, the Corporation of Catholic Lawyers presented an injunction but failed to prevent the procedure from being performed. The case became famous after the teenager denounced having been raped by her stepfather, a 50-year-old police officer.

TIME00285

TIME00285
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
03-2010
Argentina: Presentation of a bill by the National Campaign for the Decriminalization of Abortion.

TIME00286

TIME00286
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
03-2010
Argentina: J.F.O. Case – A family judge from Comodoro Rivadavia, Diana de Kasakevich, rejected the abortion request of a 15-year-old girl who was raped by her stepfather.

TIME00287

TIME00287
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
03-2010
Argentina: J.F.O. Case – The appeals court of Comodoro Rivadavia granted a legal abortion to a 15-year-old girl who was raped by her stepfather.

TIME00288

TIME00288
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
03-2010
Brazil: PL 7022 – Presentation of a bill providing for a public registry of pregnancies.

TIME00289

TIME00289
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
04-2010
El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.El Salvador: Propelled by the legal victory from the Karina case, and taking into account the change in Supreme Court justices, the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion brought a lawsuit against the declaration of constitutionality of abortion criminalization. The court ruled against the claimants, upholding its 2007 decision enforcing the country’s total abortion ban.

TIME00290

TIME00290
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
05-2010
Argentina: Passage of Law XV No. 14, Act of the Province of Chubut to Develop Public Health Facilities for the Treatment of Nonpunishable Abortion.

TIME00291

TIME00291
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-2010
Brazil: PL 7254 – Presentation of a bill increasing the penalty of imprisonment for the crime of abortion.

TIME00292

TIME00292
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-2010
Brazil: The proposal to decriminalize abortion is removed from the National Human Rights Program due to pressure from evangelical groups and the political weakening of the Lula administration.

TIME00293

TIME00293
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
05-2010
Colombia: As part of the No More Dark Ages campaign, candlelight vigils were held in four major cities in support of the disciplinary complaint filed against Attorney General Ordoñez.

TIME00294

TIME00294
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Executive decree or policy reform
05-2010
Brazil: Federal Decree 7177/2010 revoked the provision of the National Human Rights Plan that asserted support for the decriminalization of abortion.

TIME00295

TIME00295
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2010
Colombia: Juan Manuel Santos elected president in the run-off.

TIME00296

TIME00296
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
07-2010
Argentina: The Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the Civil Code articles impeding same-sex marriage.

TIME00297

TIME00297
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
07-2010
Argentina: Publication of a new protocol for legal abortion care.

TIME00298

TIME00298
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
07-2010
Brazil: Congress’s Commission on Social Security and Family approved a new version of PL 478/07 establishing a “Statute of the Unborn” (presented by Deputy Solange Almeira (PMDB-RJ)).

TIME00299

TIME00299
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
07-2010
Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-585/2010 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, C.C., requested an abortion on the grounds of risk to her health and life. Claiming conscientious objection, her attending physicians refused to perform the procedure, and the hospital asked her to fulfill additional requirements. C.C. filed a tutela, which was denied by the court of first instance. She then appealed to the Constitutional Court, which stated that pregnant women cannot be forced “to take heroic sacrifices or lay down their own rights for the benefit of third parties or the public interest.” It also stressed the importance of timely diagnoses by health care providers. Finally, it ruled that the hospital had violated C.C.’s fundamental right to abortion.

TIME00300

TIME00300
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
07-2010
El Salvador: Creation of the organization Vida SV El Salvador in the wake of two key events: (1) an abortion rights lawsuit filed before the Supreme Court by the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion and (2) a request by the UN Human Rights Committee asking El Salvador to review its legislation on abortion. Vida SV El Salvador is made up of Catholic Action members and has gradually turned its attention to actions related to the legal and bioethical fields.

TIME00261

TIME00261
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
04-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Nayarit reformed article 7 of its Constitution to recognize, protect, and guarantee the right to life of every human being from the moment of fertilization until its natural death.

TIME00262

TIME00262
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
05-2009
Argentina: T.N. Case – In Río Negro, an 11-year-old girl was sexually abused repeatedly by her father and uncle, resulting in pregnancy. The case was brought to court, and an abortion was granted by Judge Lozada. Subsequently, the president of the Bar Association of Río Negro, who was also tie founder of a pro-life organization, began impeachment proceedings against the judge.

TIME00263

TIME00263
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
05-2009
Colombia: The lawsuit to annul Decree 444 of 2006 was admitted. The lawsuit called for the nullification of Decree 444, “which regulates the provision of sexual and reproductive health services,” on the grounds that issues such as conscientious objection and financing for abortion should be regulated by laws passed by Congress and not through decrees issued by entities within the health system.

TIME00264

TIME00264
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
05-2009
Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion. Colombia: Sentence T-388/2009 – X.X., when 12 weeks pregnant, was diagnosed with a serious malformation of the fetus. However, her health care provider denied her an abortion. X.X.’s husband filed a tutela, which was denied by the judge of first instance, who claimed conscientious objection. Thereafter, the Constitutional Court ruled that public servants cannot pose obstacles not covered by Sentence C-355/2006, reiterating that judicial authorities may not plead conscientious objection to refrain from authorizing requests for abortion.

TIME00265

TIME00265
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
05-2009
Colombia: San Ignacio Hospital was sanctioned by the Ministry of Health for its refusal to provide abortion services on the basis of institutional conscientious objection. This sanction was achieved thanks to a complaint filed by the Superintendence of Health.

TIME00266

TIME00266
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
05-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of San Luis Potosi reformed article 16 of its Constitution to recognize that all human life begins at the moment of conception.

TIME00267

TIME00267
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
05-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Guanajuato reformed its Constitution to affirm that “a person is every human being from conception until natural death; and the State shall guarantee the full enjoyment and exercise of all their rights.”

TIME00268

TIME00268
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
07-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Yucatan reformed article 1 of its Constitution to “recognize, protect and guarantee the right to life of every human being, [which] from the moment of its fertilization, comes under the protection of the law and is recognized as born for all legal purposes, until his natural death.”

TIME00269

TIME00269
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Court ruling
08-2009
El Salvador: Cristina Quintanilla was released from prison after the Supreme Court ruled that her sentence had been excessive. In October 2004, when she was 18 and seven months pregnant, she collapsed in pain on the floor of her family home. Unconscious and bleeding heavily, she was taken to the hospital by her mother. She lost her child. Cristina was subsequently accused of killing her child. Within ten months, she was convicted of aggravated murder and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

TIME00270

TIME00270
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
09-2009
Colombia: Approximately 2,500 people belonging to the pro-life Antioch network held a sit-in in front of the Mayor’s Office of Medellín to express their opposition to abortions being provided at Clínica de la Mujer.

TIME00271

TIME00271
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
09-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Oaxaca reformed article 12 of its Constitution to affirm that “every human being, from the moment of fertilization, comes under the protection of the law and is recognized as born for all legal purposes until its natural death.”

TIME00272

TIME00272
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
09-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Queretaro reformed article 2 of its Constitution to recognize, protect, and guarantee the right to life of every human being from the moment of fertilization until its natural death.

TIME00273

TIME00273
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
09-2009
Peru: During the 33rd National Conference of Bishops, Jesus Moliné Labarta, the Bishop of Chiclayo, presented a petition against abortion with thousands of signatures. The signatures had been collected as part of a campaign to promote the defense of life from the moment of conception.

TIME00274

TIME00274
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Debate over legal reform
10-2009
Argentina: The House of Representatives debated two bills to recognize same-sex marriage

TIME00275

TIME00275
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
10-2009
Mexico: Twelve members of the local congress of the state of San Luis Potosi presented Action of Unconstitutionality 62/2009 asking the Supreme Court to invalidate article 16 of the state’s Constitution, which protects the right to life from the moment of conception.

TIME00276

TIME00276
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
10-2009
Peru: The Constitutional Court issued Decision 02005-2009-PA/TC banning the distribution of emergency contraception.

TIME00277

TIME00277
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Institutional reform
11-2009
Argentina: A legal abortion for a ten-year-old girl who became pregnant as a result of rape was performed at the Materno-Infantil Hospital in Buenos Aires Province.

TIME00278

TIME00278
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
11-2009
Argentina: Fryre Case – A court from Buenos Aires (15th Circuit Court on Administrative and Taxation Disputes) declared unconstitutional the traditional interpretation of the Civil Code that recognized only heterosexual marriages.

TIME00279

TIME00279
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
12-2009
Argentina: A lawsuit was filed before the Supreme Court contesting the veto against legal abortion in the province of La Pampa. The lawsuit was rejected.

TIME00280

TIME00280
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
12-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Chiapas reformed article 4 of its Constitution to protect and guarantee the right to life from the moment of fertilization until natural death.

TIME00241

TIME00241
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
10-2008
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Sonora reformed article 1 of its Constitution to protect the right to life from the moment of fertilization (“from the moment of fertilization, an individual comes under the protection of the law and is recognized as born for all the corresponding legal effects, until its natural death”).

TIME00242

TIME00242
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
11-2008
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Morelos reformed article 2 of its Constitution to guarantee the right to life from the moment of conception, contravening article 119 of the Penal Code, which allows abortion under specific circumstances (rape, endangerment to the pregnant woman’s life, and fetal malformation).

TIME00243

TIME00243
Latin America and the Caribbean
Uruguay
No
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
11-2008
Uruguay: President Tabaré Vázquez vetoed a bill aimed at expanding the grounds for legal abortion. The bill had been previously approved by Congress.

TIME00244

TIME00244
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
12-2008
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Baja California reformed article 7 of its Constitution to the effect that “each individual conceived shall, for legal purposes, be considered as born.”

TIME00245

TIME00245
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
01-2009
Colombia: Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex couples must be accorded the same benefits as heterosexual couples.

TIME00246

TIME00246
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
01-2009
Colombia: Appointment of Alejandro Ordoñez, a conservative Catholic linked to the Opus Dei, as the attorney general. Ordoñez then appointed Ilva Myriam Hoyos, a longtime professor at the Opus Dei´s Universidad de la Sabana and former president of the antiabortion organization Red Futuro Colombia, as his delegate for women´s rights.

TIME00247

TIME00247
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
01-2009
Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.Colombia: Sentence T-009/2009 – While pregnant, A.A. was diagnosed with cervical cancer, which required surgery that was denied by her health care provider. A.A.’s husband filed a tutela. The first instance court authorized the surgery, while the second instance court denied it on the grounds that it would endanger the fetus. The Constitutional Court overturned the denial of the second instance court.

TIME00248

TIME00248
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
01-2009
Mexico: Action of Unconstitutionality 11/2009 presented by the Human Rights Ombudsman of the state of Baja California requesting the invalidation of article 7 of the Constitution, which protects life from the moment of conception.

TIME00249

TIME00249
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
01-2009
Mexico: Supreme Court ruled in favor of a trans woman who requested a new birth certificate that would not reveal the gender assigned to her at birth.

TIME00250

TIME00250
Latin America and the Caribbean
Bolivia
No
Critical event
Advance
Constitutional reform
02-2009
Bolivia: New Constitution banned discrimination on the basis of “sexual orientation” and “gender identity.”

TIME00251

TIME00251
Latin America and the Caribbean
Bolivia
No
Critical event
Restrict
Constitutional reform
02-2009
Bolivia: New Constitution acknowledged “marriage” and “free unions” as only those occurring “between a woman and a man.”

TIME00252

TIME00252
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
02-2009
Brazil: PL 4725 – Presentation of a bill providing for assistance to women victims of rape who wish to obtain a legal abortion.

TIME00253

TIME00253
Latin America and the Caribbean
Chile
No
Critical event
Advance
Social mobilization
02-2009
Chile: The Unified Movement for Sexual Minorities organized its first-ever mass wedding for sexual minorities in front of the Metropolitan Cathedral.

TIME00254

TIME00254
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
02-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Colima reformed article 1 of its Constitution to provide legal protection to embryos, which it defined as “a human being in formation and development”.

TIME00255

TIME00255
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
03-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Jalisco reformed its Constitution to “protect and ensure the public subjective right of the individual to life, from conception to natural death.”

TIME00256

TIME00256
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
03-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Puebla reformed its Constitution to protect life from the moment of conception and to strengthen the family.

TIME00257

TIME00257
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
03-2009
Peru: Decision 16325-2008 – A first instance court from Lima (the Sixth Constitutional Court of Lima) ruled against a claim filed against the Ministry of Health for neglecting to issue and implement Therapeutic Abortion Guidelines.

TIME00258

TIME00258
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
04-2009
El Salvador: Creation of the Citizens’ Coalition for the Decriminalization of Abortion.

TIME00259

TIME00259
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
04-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Quintana Roo reformed article 13 of its Constitution to recognize, protect, and guarantee the right to life of every human being from the moment of conception until its natural death.

TIME00260

TIME00260
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
04-2009
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Durango reformed article 1 of its Constitution to recognize, protect, and guarantee the right to life of every human being from the moment of fertilization until its natural death.

TIME00221

TIME00221
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
03-2008
Mexico: The state of Hidalgo reformed its Penal Code to decriminalize abortion in cases of genetic malformation or serious birth defects and to extend the time limit for abortion from 75 to 90 days in cases of rape and nonconsensual artificial insemination.

TIME00222

TIME00222
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
04-2008
Braze: PL 3207 – Presentation of a bill declaring the inducement of, instigation of, or assistance to suicide (euthanasia) and abortion as abominable crimes.

TIME00223

TIME00223
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
05-2008
Brazil: ADI 3510 – Supreme Court decided in favor of stem cells research.

TIME00224

TIME00224
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-2008
Brazil: PL 1135/91 – Congress’s Commission on Social Security and Family rejected a bill seeking to decriminalize self-induced abortions that occur with or without the pregnant woman’s consent. All representatives present voted against the bill.

TIME00225

TIME00225
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
05-2008
El Salvador: Representatives from all political parties signed the book “Sí a la Vida.”

TIME00226

TIME00226
Latin America and the Caribbean
Nicaragua
No
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
05-2008
Nicaragua: Penal Code reformed to legalize same-sex relations and abolish an anti-sodomy law.

TIME00227

TIME00227
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Statement by a national authority
06-2008
Brazil: President Lula launched the first National Conference of Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transsexuals in Brasilia.

TIME00228

TIME00228
Latin America and the Caribbean
Cuba
No
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
06-2008
Cuba: President Raúl Castro authorized free sex-change operations for qualifying citizens, a policy change advocated by Cuba’s National Center for Sex Education (presided over by President Castro’s daughter, Mariela Castro). 

TIME00229

TIME00229
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
07-2008
Brazil: PL 3673 – Presentation of a bill reducing the penalty of imprisonment from one to two years for the crime of abortion.

TIME00230

TIME00230
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
07-2008
Brazil: PL 1135/91 – Congress’s Commission on Constitutionality, Justice and Citizenship rejected a bill seeking to decriminalize self-induced abortions that occur with or without the pregnant woman’s consent.

TIME00231

TIME00231
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
07-2008
Colombia: Luis Rueda filed a lawsuit to annul Decree 444 of 2006, which he considered a direct, evident, and manifest violation of the Constitution.

TIME00232

TIME00232
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Court ruling
08-2008
Brazil: ADPF 54 – Public hearings held on the issue of therapeutic abortions in cases of anencephaly.

TIME00233

TIME00233
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
08-2008
Mexico: The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Federal District’s 2007 decriminalization of abortion under certain grounds.

TIME00234

TIME00234
Latin America and the Caribbean
Panama
No
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
08-2008
Panama: Repeal of a 1949 law criminalizing sex among same-sex partners.

TIME00235

TIME00235
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
09-2008
Argentina: M.V. Case – In the province of Mendoza, the mother of a 12-year-old girl who was raped by her stepfather requested a legal abortion for her daughter. The judge rejected the request and revoked the mother’s custody of her child. Members of the organization More Human Life entered the girl’s hospital room to dissuade her from aborting. Following the ruling, the provincial government said that it would help her family improve its socioeconomic situation. Eventually, the girl gave up her request for an abortion.

TIME00236

TIME00236
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
09-2008
Brazil: Creation of the National Front to End the Criminalization of Women and to Legalize Abortion.

TIME00237

TIME00237
Latin America and the Caribbean
Ecuador
No
Critical event
Advance
Constitutional reform
09-2008
Ecuador: Voters approved the country’s 20th Constitution, whose article 11 bans discrimination on the basis of “gender identity,” “sexual orientation,” and “HIV status.”

TIME00238

TIME00238
Latin America and the Caribbean
Ecuador
No
Critical event
Restrict
Constitutional reform
09-2008
Ecuador: Voters approve the country’s 20th Constitution, whose article 68 defines marriage as the “union between a man and a woman.”

TIME00239

TIME00239
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
10-2008
Argentina: G.N.R. Case – A disabled 18-year-old woman who lived at a foundation known as the Children’s Trust of Bahia Blanca became pregnant as a result of rape. She requested an abortion, which was approved by the health care provider. However, a family court judge revoked the claimant’s right to an abortion, taking into account the request of a couple that had appeared before the court to request an adoption of the unborn child.

TIME00240

TIME00240
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
10-2008
Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.Colombia: Sentence T-946/2008 (Manizales) – X.X., a girl with Down syndrome, became pregnant as a result of rape. Her mother, A.A., requested an abortion on the grounds of fetal malformation, but the attending physician denied the request. A.A. then filed a tutela, which was denied by the first and second instance courts. When the case was appealed to the Constitutional Court, it decided to (1) revoke the denials of first and second instance; (2) grant the appeal; (3) condemn the health care provider; (4) warn the health care provider to desist from presenting future obstacles for cases of abortion requests on behalf of disabled women who have been victims of sexual violence; and (5) investigate the first and second instance judges.

TIME00201

TIME00201
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Litigation
04-2007
Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.Brazil: ADI 3510 – First public hearing regarding the legality of research with embryonic stem cells.

TIME00202

TIME00202
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
04-2007
Mexico: Federal District amended its Penal Code to permit abortion without restriction as to reason during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and reformed its health law to ensure free legal abortion services.

TIME00203

TIME00203
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Decision/report from public institution (excludes ministries, judicial bodies)
05-2007
Argentina: National Institute Against Discrimination, Xenophobia and Racism issued a recommendation on the justification and regulation of “nonpunishable abortion.” Its recommendation framed the debate as an antidiscrimination issue.

TIME00204

TIME00204
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
05-2007
Mexico: The attorney general (Eduardo Medina Mora) and the National Commission for Human Rights (José Luis Soberanes Fernández) presented two actions of unconstitutionality against the reforms to decriminalize abortion (Actions of Unconstitutionality 146/2007 and 147/2007).

TIME00205

TIME00205
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
08-2007
Argentina: M.F.C. Case – In the city of Paraná (province of Entre Ríos), an abortion was requested by the mother of a 19-year-old disabled girl, M.F.C., who became pregnant as a result of rape. The procecure was denied via a precautionary measure filed in defense of the “unborn child” by the Ombudswoman for Children and the Poor. The judge from the province’s Court for Minors granted the injunction and also ruled that M.F.C. should reside in a state home run by the Council for Children. M.F.C.’s mother appealed the injunction and obtained authorization for a legal abortion. During the legal timeframe for filing appeals, the man who had impregnated M.F.C. appeared, arguing in defense of the rights of the “unborn child.” The Superior Court of Entre Ríos ruled in favor of an abortion. M.F.C. was transferred to Mar del Plata, where she finally received an abortion, given that local doctors in Paraná refused to perform the procedure.

TIME00206

TIME00206
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
08-2007
Brazil: PL 1763 – New presentation of a bill (by Deputies Jusmari Oliveira (PR/PA) and Henrique Afonso (PT/AC)) providing assistance to mothers and their children in cases where the children are conceived as a result of sexual violence.

TIME00207

TIME00207
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
08-2007
Brazil: PL 1820 – New presentation of a bill (by Deputy Rodovalho (DEM/DF)) amending the Civil Code to create a public registry of pregnancies.

TIME00208

TIME00208
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
10-2007
Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.Brazil: PL 2154 – Presentation of a bill providing for the creation of a hotline to receive reports of illegal abortions.

TIME00209

TIME00209
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
10-2007
Brazil: PL 2273 – Presentation of a bill amending Decree-Law No. 2848 of 1940 to criminalize the act of assisting or providing tools or drugs for the performance of abortion.

TIME00210

TIME00210
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
10-2007
Brazil: The Federal Medical Council issued Resolution 1752 considering anencephalic fetuses as brain-dead and allowing doctors to remove their organs after birth to be used for transplantation. Resolution 1805 authorizing doctors to perform euthanasia in such cases remained in effect, as did Resolution 1811/2006 affirming that emergency contraception is not an abortifacient.

TIME00211

TIME00211
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
11-2007
Brazil: PL 2433 – Presentation of a bill increasing the penalty of detention for pregnant women who carry out or allow an abortion, and requiring imprisonment for third parties who perform the procedure. It also criminalized any behavior to induce, instigate, or assist a pregnant woman to abort.

TIME00212

TIME00212
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
11-2007
Brazil: PL 2504 – Presentation of a bill providing for the mandatory registration of pregnant women in health facilities, whether outpatient, hospital, public, or private.

TIME00213

TIME00213
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
11-2007
Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities. Colombia: Sentence T-988/2007 (Villavicencio) – The claimant, D.D., requested an abortion for her disabled daughter who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, but the health care provider (known as an EPS in Spanish) refused. D.D. presented a tutela, but judges ruled against her, arguing that an abortion would endanger her daughter’s life. Her daughter finally secured an abortion outside the EPS. The Court ruled that the EPS had ignored Sentence C-355/06 and warned it against presenting similar obstacles to future cases of abortion requests for women with disabilities.

TIME00214

TIME00214
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
11-2007
El Salvador: The Supreme Court rejected the actions of unconstitutionality filed in 1998.

TIME00215

TIME00215
International bodies
UNHRC
No
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
11-2007
UN Human Rights Committee: The L.M.R. case was presented to the committee.

TIME00216

TIME00216
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
12-2007
Argentina: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner elected president.

TIME00217

TIME00217
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
12-2007
Brazil: PL 2690 – Presentation of a bill criminalizing the advertising and promotion of abortive methods or substances (“illegal abortion”).

TIME00218

TIME00218
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
02-2008
Colombia: Sentence T-209/2008 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, B.B., requested an abortion for her young daughter, who had become pregnant as a result of rape. Despite the fact that B.B. had filed a criminal complaint with the public prosecutor regarding the rape, her daughter was denied an abortion by her health care provider. The court ruled that the health care provider had violated the young woman’s fundamental rights in refusing to perform the procedure. Specifically, it decided to (1) revoke the decisions of the first and second instance courts; (2) order the health care provider and the health professionals who attended the case to pay damages; and (3) investigate the judicial officers.

TIME00219

TIME00219
Latin America and the Caribbean
Venezuela
No
Critical event
Advance
Court ruling
02-2008
Venezuela: The Constitutional Branch of the Supreme Court issued a ruling deeming discrimination based on sexual orientation as unconstitutional.

TIME00220

TIME00220
Latin America and the Caribbean
Venezuela
No
Critical event
Restrict
Court ruling
02-2008
Venezuela: The Constitutional Branch of the Supreme Court issued a ruling stating that there is no constitutional protection for same-sex partnerships; only the legislature can confer such protection.  

TIME00181

TIME00181
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-2006
Peru: General elections (president and Congress).

TIME00182

TIME00182
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
05-2006
Argentina: Reform of the Penal Code was proposed to extend the grounds for legal abortion and to decriminalize abortion during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

TIME00183

TIME00183
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
05-2006
Colombia: Constitutional Court issued Sentence C-355/2006 carving out exceptions to the Penal Code’s criminalization of abortion, allowing women to terminate pregnancies if the pregnancy poses a risk to the woman’s life or her physical or mental health and in cases of rape, incest, or fetal impairments incompatible with life.

TIME00184

TIME00184
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2006
Colombia: Álvaro Uribe Vélez reelected as president

TIME00185

TIME00185
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2006
Peru: General elections (president and Congress). Alan García elected president in the run-off.

TIME00186

TIME00186
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
07-2006
Argentina: Courts of first and second legal instances denied a mother’s request to terminate the pregnancy of her mentally disabled daughter. Her 19-year-old daughter, L.M.R., became pregnant after allegedly being raped by her uncle. The case reached the Supreme Court of the Province of Buenos Aires, which ruled in favor of abortion in August 2006. However, the hospital refused to perform the procedure, arguing that L.M.R. was in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The claimant received an underground abortion with the support of members of the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion.

TIME00187

TIME00187
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
07-2006
Mexico: Felipe Calderón Hinojoza (PAN) elected president.  

TIME00188

TIME00188
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
08-2006
Brazil: Launch of the campaign Brazil without Abortion, with the taglines “for a parliament in defense of life” and “decide for life: vote for candidates who are against abortion.” Their goal is to build support in Congress to uphold the country’s abortion ban.

TIME00189

TIME00189
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
09-2006
Argentina: Feminist advocate María Jose Lubertino appointed as the chief of the National Institute against Discrimination, Xenophobia and Racism.

TIME00190

TIME00190
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
09-2006
Brazil: PL 7443 – Presentation of bill identifying abortion as an abominable crime.

TIME00191

TIME00191
Latin America and the Caribbean
Nicaragua
No
Critical event
Restrict
Legal reform
10-2006
Nicaragua: Penal Code amended to eliminate all exceptions to its abortion prohibition. The law removed the earlier provision that authorized the performance of therapeutic abortion. The new provisions took effect on 9 July 2008.

TIME00192

TIME00192
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
11-2006
Peru: Constitutional Court issued Decision No. 7435-2006-PC/TC ordering the Ministry of Health to distribute emergency contraception, stating that it is not an abortifacient.

TIME00193

TIME00193
Latin America and the Caribbean
Ecuador
No
Critical event
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
12-2006
Ecuador: Enactment of the new health code empowering public and private health care providers to administer abortion in accordance with the Penal Code.

TIME00194

TIME00194
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
12-2006
Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).Mexico: Penal Code of Chihuahua reformed to decriminalize abortion in cases of nonconsensual artificial insemination and accidental abortion (aborto imprudencial o culposo).

TIME00195

TIME00195
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
02-2007
Argentina: M.V.O. Case – An abortion was requested by the mother of a 14-year-old girl who became pregnant after being raped by her stepfather. The court of first instance authorized the abortion. However, Silvia E. Fernandez, by order of Mar del Plata’s attorney general, appealed the ruling by claiming that it violated the rights of the unborn. The Chamber of Criminal Appeals declined to rule on the case on the grounds that the offense had not yet been committed, and transferred it to the civil courts. Finally, Chamber II of the Civil Chamber of Mar del Plata ruled unanimously to confirm the first instance decision. The claimant suffered a miscarriage.

TIME00196

TIME00196
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
03-2007
Brazil: PL 478 – Deputies Luiz Bassuma (PT/BA) and Miguel Martini (PHS/MG) presented a bill establishing a “Statute of the Unborn” and other measures.

TIME00197

TIME00197
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
03-2007
Colombia: The Catholic Church requested a national “Day of the Unborn” during its Holy Week message.

TIME00198

TIME00198
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
03-2007
Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.Colombia: Sentence T-171/2007 (Cúcuta) – The claimant, D.D., was five months pregnant when she was denied an abortion that she had requested on the grounds of fetal malformation. She filed a tutela against her health care provider, but the second instance court ruled against her on the grounds that her request was not covered by Sentence C-355/2006. Two months later, she received an emergency caesarean section. Although the court ruled that D.D.’s case lacked a cause of action, it emphasized current regulations on pregnant women’s access to health services, particularly regarding cases where abortion is permissible under the exceptions laid out in Sentence C-355/2006. In this way, the ruling set a precedent in terms of women’s access to surgical abortion and its reaffirmation of existing norms on abortion.

TIME00199

TIME00199
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
04-2007
Brazil: PL 660 – Presentation of a bill exempting the practice of “therapeutic abortion” from punishment in cases of fetal abnormalities, including anencephaly, which implies no possibility of life outside the uterus.

TIME00200

TIME00200
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
04-2007
Brazil: PL 831 – Presentation of a bill requiring local, state, and federal hospitals implement a program informing women who seek legal abortions about the effects and methods of the procedure.

TIME00161

TIME00161
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
06-2005
Argentina: The Supreme Court of the Province of Buenos Aires authorized abortion in cases of risk to the pregnant woman’s health and life. This is the case known as CPdP, AK, which centered on a woman who requested an abortion at nine weeks on the grounds that the pregnancy was a threat to her health and life. The hospital, despite recognizing the imminent risk to the woman’s health and life, refused to perform an abortion without judicial authorization.

TIME00162

TIME00162
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-2005
Brazil: PL 5364 – Presentation of a bill punishing abortion in cases of pregnancy resulting from rape. 

TIME00163

TIME00163
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-2005
Brazil: PL 5376 – Presentation of a bill prohibiting marketing of the emergency contraception. 

TIME00164

TIME00164
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
07-2005
Brazil: The Ministry of Health issued Ordinance 1145/2005 ratifying that rape victims do not need to present a police report in order to secure a legal abortion.

TIME00165

TIME00165
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
08-2005
Argentina: The Ministry of Health launched post-abortion care program.

TIME00166

TIME00166
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
08-2005
Brazil: PL 1135/91 reformulated and presented once again following the first National Public Policy Conference of Brazilian Women. The bill proposed the legalization of abortion in cases not permitted by law, as well as the obligation for public and private health providers to bear its costs. The bill lost by one vote.

TIME00167

TIME00167
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
08-2005
Brazil: The National Assembly of Brazilian Bishops declared 8 October as national “Day of the Unborn” and the week preceding it as the “Week of Life.”

TIME00168

TIME00168
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
08-2005
Brazil: The National Assembly of Brazilian Bishops issued a declaration advocating for ethical demands in the defense of life.

TIME00169

TIME00169
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
08-2005
Brazil: Creation of the Parliamentary Alliance in Defense of Life – Against Abortion in Congress.

TIME00170

TIME00170
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Executive decree or policy reform
09-2005
Brazil: In one of his first actions while in office, the new Minister of Health issued Ordinance 1508/2005 revoking Ordinance 1145/2005, which had been discredited by the president of the Supreme Court and the Federal Medical Council. This new ordinance, in an attempt to reassure medical professionals, provided an approval form empowering the medical team to determine the existence of “evidence toward a false allegation of a sex crime.” In essence, despite the fact that rape victims are not required to present a police report in order to obtain an abortion, the medical team has the power to determine whether to authorize the procedure based on its own understanding of “evidence.”

TIME00171

TIME00171
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
09-2005
Brazil: The National Association of Women for Life published its first “Manifesto in the Defense of Life.”

TIME00172

TIME00172
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
09-2005
Brazil: Rio de Janeiro issued a municipal decree repudiating Ministerial Ordinance 1508, which revoked the right to abortion without the need to present a police report.

TIME00173

TIME00173
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
10-2005
Argentina: Convening of the 20th National Women’s Meeting in Mar del Plata, a key event for catalyzing the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion (information on this mobilization can be found in the press starting in 2003).

TIME00174

TIME00174
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
11-2005
Brazil: PL 6150 – Presentation of a bill establishing a “Statute of the Unborn” and other measures.

TIME00175

TIME00175
International bodies
UNHRC
No
Abortion
Advance
Decision of international body
11-2005
UN Human Rights Committee decision in K.L. v Peru – In this decision, the committee recognized that the claimant’s forced continuation of pregnancy constituted cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. The committee also recommended that Peru implement measures and provide remedies to prevent similar cases from occurring in the future.

TIME00176

TIME00176
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
12-2005
Brazil: Creation of a religious order of priests dedicated to defending life.

TIME00177

TIME00177
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
12-2005
Brazil: Convening of the first National Seminar against Abortion. The event was led by Deputy Luiz Bassuma (PT-BA) and gathered scientists, legal scholars, and representatives of the Catholic and Evangelical Churches to debate “the scientific, legal and religious reasons again the legalization of abortion in Brazil.”

TIME00178

TIME00178
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
01-2006
Brazil: Luiz Inácio Lula Da Silva reelected as president.

TIME00179

TIME00179
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
02-2006
Brazil: The Ministry of Health issued Resolution 348/2005 in support of women’s right to interrupt their pregnancy within the public health system in cases of anencephaly. It also requires health care providers to share information on abortion with their patients.

TIME00180

TIME00180
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
04-2006
El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009. El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an article in the New York Times magazine highlighting Karina’s situation. After the piece was printed, leaders from different feminist organizations united to develop strategies for Karina’s legal defense. She was finally freed in 2009.

TIME00141

TIME00141
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
07-2004
Brazil: Convening of the first National Public Policy Conference of Brazilian Women. The meeting discussions led to the creation of the first National Plan of Policies for Women, the enactment of the Maria da Penha law (on domestic violence), and a commission to discuss the legalization of abortion a few years later.

TIME00142

TIME00142
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
08-2004
Brazil: In a preliminary decision, the Supreme Court authorized the abortion of an anencephalic fetus in response to a lawsuit brought by the National Confederation of Health Workers with the technical and institutional support of ANIS (the Institute of Bioethics, Human Rights, and Gender).

TIME00143

TIME00143
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
09-2004
Peru: On September 30 2004, the Congressmen Hector Chavez Chuchón and Rafael Rey filed a unconstitutional action against the Ministry of Health Pilar Mazzeti. The Congressmen, linked to sectors against sexual and reproductive rights, accuse the minister Mazzeti of violating the fundamental rights of the unborn through the free distribution of the emergency contraception.

TIME00144

TIME00144
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
10-2004
Argentina: Commitment for the reduction of maternal mortality in Argentina. One-third of maternal deaths were caused by unsafe abortion.

TIME00145

TIME00145
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
10-2004
Brazil: PL 4304 – Presentation of a bill decriminalizing the voluntary interruption of pregnancy.

TIME00146

TIME00146
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
10-2004
Brazil: A Supreme Court plenary reviewed and revoked the preliminary decision of the Supreme Court that authorized abortion in cases of anencephaly.

TIME00147

TIME00147
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
11-2004
Brazil: PL 4360 – Presentation of a bill exempting penalties for abortion practiced by a doctor when the fetus is anencephalic, as substantiated by the independent reports of two doctors.

TIME00148

TIME00148
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
11-2004
Brazil: PL 4403 – Presentation of a bill exempting the practice of “therapeutic abortion” from punishment in cases of fetal abnormalities, including anencephaly, which implies no possibility of life outside the uterus.

TIME00149

TIME00149
Latin America and the Caribbean
Saint Lucia
No
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
11-2004
Saint Lucia: Abortion law amended to permit abortion when the pregnancy endangers the pregnant woman’s life or physical or mental health, or is a result of rape or incest.

TIME00150

TIME00150
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
12-2004
Mexico: The local congress of Southern Baja California modified its health law to establish a five-day limit for the free legal interruption of pregnancy once it has been authorized by the Public Ministry; the reforms also oblige state health services to provide emergency contraception.

TIME00151

TIME00151
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
01-2005
Brazil: New technical norm on the “prevention and treatment of damages resulting from sexual violence against women and adolescents” issued by the Ministry of Health eliminating the requirement that rape victims present a police report in order to obtain a legal abortion in the public health system.

TIME00152

TIME00152
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
03-2005
Brazil: PL 4834 – Presentation of a bill exempting punishment for abortion performed by a doctor when the fetus is anencephalic, as substantiated by the independent reports of two doctors.

TIME00153

TIME00153
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
03-2005
Brazil: Congress passed Law 11105 upholding the prohibition of human cloning and the genetic engineering of live organisms or human germ cells, zygotes, or embryos, with the exception of those left over from in vitro procedures and used for research and therapy.

TIME00154

TIME00154
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
03-2005
Mexico: The congress of Baja California reformed its Penal Code to establish some of the lowest sanctions for abortion, and added a clause that no criminal responsibility will be exercised when the woman’s life it at risk. 

TIME00155

TIME00155
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
04-2005
Argentina: Launch of the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion. 

TIME00156

TIME00156
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
04-2005
Brazil: PL 5058 – Presentation of a bill regulating articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution to provide for the inviolability of the right to life and define euthanasia and abortion as abominable crimes under any circumstances.

TIME00157

TIME00157
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
04-2005
Brazil: PL 5044 – Bill presented by Deputy Milton Cardias (PTB/RS) to amend the Civil Code to create a public registry of pregnancies.

TIME00158

TIME00158
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
04-2005
Brazil: The Special Secretariat for Policies for Women installed a new tri-party commission with representatives from the executive branch, legislative branch, and civil society to propose a revision to the criminal status of abortion to Congress.

TIME00159

TIME00159
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
05-2005
Brazil: ADI 3510 – Presentation of a bill allowing studies with embryonic stem cells.

TIME00160

TIME00160
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Court ruling
06-2005
Argentina: Court ruling in the case of Romina Tejerina, a young woman who became pregnant after being raped and who killed her newborn, reigniting national debate on abortion in cases of rape.

TIME00121

TIME00121
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
04-2003
Brazil: PL 849 – Presentation of a bill authorizing the executive to create a call center for receiving complaints of illegal abortions. The bill was presented by Elimar Damasceno (PRONA).

TIME00122

TIME00122
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
05-2003
Argentina: Néstor Kirchner elected president.

TIME00123

TIME00123
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-2003
Brazil: PL 1091 – Presentation of a bill requiring local, state, and federal hospitals to implement a program informing women who seek legal abortions about the effects and methods of the procedure.

TIME00124

TIME00124
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
06-2003
Argentina: Access to abortion in cases of anencephaly regulated by the City of Buenos Aires.

TIME00125

TIME00125
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
07-2003
Brazil: PL 1459 – Bill introduced by Severino Cavalcanti (PP/PE) amending the Penal Code to require imprisonment for abortions performed as a result of fetal abnormalities (claiming them to be “eugenic abortion”).

TIME00126

TIME00126
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
07-2003
Peru: Prime Minister Luis Solari replaced by Beatriz Merino.

TIME00127

TIME00127
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
07-2003
Peru: Minister of Health Fernando Carbone replaced by Alvador Vidal, ending three years of ministry leadership in favor of restricting sexual and reproductive rights.

TIME00128

TIME00128
Regional Africa
Regional Africa
No
Abortion
Advance
Government-level conference commitment/declaration
07-2003
Signature of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (known as the Maputo Protocol). Article 14(2) requires states to “protect the reproductive rights of women by authorizing medical abortion in cases of sexual assault, rape, incest, and where the continued pregnancy endangers the mental and physical health of the mother or the life of the mother or the fetus.”

TIME00129

TIME00129
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Public appointment
08-2003
Peru: Héctor Hugo Chávez Chuchón is appointed as President of the Health Commission at the National Congress. Chuchon has publicly declared against abortion. He played a central role on the debates regarding decriminalization of abortion.

TIME00130

TIME00130
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
09-2003
Argentina: For the first time ever, on September 28, simultaneous marches were held in different parts of the country as part of the “Day of Decriminalization of Abortion in Latin America and the Caribbean.”

TIME00131

TIME00131
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
09-2003
Peru: On September 12, Congressman Hector Chavez Chuchón filed an action of unconstitutionality against former Minister of Health E. Pretell Zárate, accusing him of acting against the constitutional order when he approved emergency contraception as part of the National Family Planning Guidelines.

TIME00132

TIME00132
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Decision/report from public institution (excludes ministries, judicial bodies)
09-2003
Peru: The High-Level Commission to Evaluate Emergency Contraception issued a final decision stating that the pill is not abortive and that its distribution does not violate Peruvian law. The statement was approved by 10 of the commission’s 13 members.

TIME00133

TIME00133
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
10-2003
Mexico: The state of Veracruz reformed its Penal Code to reduce criminal sanctions for abortion when it involves the woman’s consent, and added two exceptions allowing legal abortion: nonconsensual artificial insemination and fetal malformations.

TIME00134

TIME00134
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
12-2003
Argentina: An abortion request was filed before a court in Bahia Blanca by the mother of a 14-year-old girl who was raped by her stepfather and who became pregnant as a result. The court denied the claimant’s request for an abortion.

TIME00135

TIME00135
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
12-2003
Mexico: The Legislative Assembly of the Federal District reformed its Penal Code (articles 145 and 148) and modified the Federal District’s health law. In the Penal Code, sanctions were increased for those who practice an abortion without the woman’s consent, and abortion ceased to be considered a crime when carried out within the regime of exceptions. In the health law, regulations for the provision of abortion and for the right to conscientious objection were introduced. The reforms entered into force in January 2004.

TIME00136

TIME00136
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
01-2004
El Salvador: Feminist activists from El Salvador created a coalition to defend Karina, a woman convicted of homicide after suffering an obstetric emergency late in her pregnancy. One of the reasons behind this mobilization was the publication of an articl

TIME00137

TIME00137
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
02-2004
Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul legislators pass a bill establishing same-sex civil union, which allows for joint custody of children and property and pension benefits

TIME00138

TIME00138
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
06-2004
Brazil: ADPF 54 – Presentation of a petition allowing for the preterm delivery of anencephalic fetuses.

TIME00139

TIME00139
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
06-2004
Brazil: PL 3744 -Presentation of a bill authorizing abortion in cases of violent assault or other forms of violence.

TIME00140

TIME00140
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
06-2004
Peru: A judge in Lima ordered the Ministry of Health to distribute emergency contraception.

TIME00101

TIME00101
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2001
Peru: General elections (president and Congress). Alejandro Toledo elected president in the run-off.

TIME00102

TIME00102
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
07-2001
Peru: Resolution No. 399-2001-SA/DM issued by the Ministry of Health including oral emergency contraception among the contraceptive methods to be distributed free of charge at public health facilities.

TIME00103

TIME00103
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
07-2001
Peru: Luis Solari, a medical doctor linked to the Opus Dei, appointed as Minister of Health.

TIME00104

TIME00104
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Transitional government
12-2001
Argentina: Congress appointed Rodríguez Saá as interim president. He resigned before completing his term.

TIME00105

TIME00105
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Transitional government
01-2002
Argentina: Eduardo Duhalde completed the term of office of De la Rua.

TIME00106

TIME00106
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
01-2002
Mexico: The Supreme Court declared constitutional the reforms to the Federal District’s Penal Code and Code of Penal Procedure.

TIME00107

TIME00107
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
01-2002
Peru: National “Day of the Unborn” approved by Congress through Law No. 27654.

TIME00108

TIME00108
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
05-2002
Colombia: Álvaro Uribe Vélez elected president.

TIME00109

TIME00109
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Statement by a national authority
06-2002
Peru: The Ministry of Health announced that it would not distribute oral emergency contraception due to doubts regarding whether the pill is an abortifacient.

TIME00110

TIME00110
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Restrict
Public appointment
07-2002
Peru: Luis Solari, a medical doctor linked to the Opus Dei, appointed as Prime Minister.

TIME00111

TIME00111
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Restrict
Public appointment
07-2002
Peru: Fernando Carbone, a medical doctor linked to the Opus Dei, appointed as Minister of Health.

TIME00112

TIME00112
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
10-2002
Brazil: PEC 571 – Presentation of a bill modifying the Constitution to protect life from the moment of conception and to increase penalties for practices resulting in the death, suffering, or harm of the unborn.

TIME00113

TIME00113
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
10-2002
Brazil: PL 7235 – Presentation of a bill repealing a regulation authorizing abortion in cases of endangerment to the pregnant woman’s life and pregnancy resulting from rape.

TIME00114

TIME00114
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
10-2002
Peru: The Constitutional Commission approved a proposal to allow for the provision of additional legal grounds for abortion.

TIME00115

TIME00115
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
11-2002
Argentina: Congress passed the National Reproductive Law, creating a program to promote reproductive health counseling and access to contraception.

TIME00116

TIME00116
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
12-2002
Peru: Congress rejected a bill that would allow an extension of the grounds for legal abortion.

TIME00117

TIME00117
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
01-2003
Brazil: Luiz Inácio Lula Da Silva assumed office after winning the presidential elections in October 2002.

TIME00118

TIME00118
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
02-2003
Brazil: PL 21 – Presentation of a bill amending Decree-Law No. 2848 of 1940 to remove the article criminalizing abortion procured by a pregnant woman or with her consent.

TIME00119

TIME00119
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Neutral/neither
Institutional reform
03-2003
Brazil: The Secretariat for Women’s Rights, formerly linked to the Ministry of Justice, was reformulated as the Special Secretariat for Policies for Women and became directly linked to the presidency.

TIME00120

TIME00120
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
03-2003
Brazil: PL 809/2003 – Presentation of a bill providing assistance to mothers and their children in cases where the children are conceived as a result of sexual violence.

TIME00081

TIME00081
Latin America and the Caribbean
Guatemala
No
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
05-1999
Guatemala: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress. Guatemala: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress. Guatemala: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress. Guatemala: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress.

TIME00082

TIME00082
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-1999
El Salvador: Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez elected president. He was the third consecutive president from the ARENA party.

TIME00083

TIME00083
Latin America and the Caribbean
Costa Rica
No
Critical event
Restrict
Legal reform
07-1999
Costa Rica: National “Day of the Unborn” declared by the country’s president.

TIME00084

TIME00084
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Litigation
07-1999
Mexico: Paulina Case – Paulina del Carmen Ramírez Jacinto, a 13-year-old from Mexicali, Baja California, was denied a legal abortion for a pregnancy resulting from rape. In 2002, the Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida and the Grupo Feminista Alaíde Foppa presented her case to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. In 2005, an amicable settlement was reached with the government of Baja California.

TIME00085

TIME00085
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Public appointment
09-1999
Mexico: María del Rosario Robles Berlanga replaced Cuauhtémoc Cardenas as the first female head of government of the Federal District for the left-wing PRD party.

TIME00086

TIME00086
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
12-1999
Argentina: Fernando de la Rua elected president. He resigned in 2001.

TIME00087

TIME00087
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
01-2000
Brazil: Ministry of Health issued a technical manual for the regulation of abortion for high-risk pregnancies of up to 28 weeks. The norm requires two doctors to formally assess and attest to the pregnant woman’s risk, one of whom must be a specialist in the area of medicine responsible for the abortion.

TIME00088

TIME00088
Latin America and the Caribbean
Nicaragua
No
Critical event
Restrict
Legal reform
01-2000
Nicaragua: National “Day of the Unborn” declared via executive decree.Nicaragua: National “Day of the Unborn” declared via executive decree.Nicaragua: National “Day of the Unborn” declared via executive decree.Nicaragua: National “Day of the Unborn” declared via executive decree.

TIME00089

TIME00089
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-2000
Peru: General elections (president and Congress). Alberto Fujimori elected president.

TIME00090

TIME00090
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-2000
Peru: General elections (president and Congress). Alberto Fujimori elected president in the run-off.

TIME00091

TIME00091
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
07-2000
Mexico: Vicente Fox Quesada (PAN) elected president and Andrés Manuel López Obrador (PRD) elected head of government of the Federal District.

TIME00092

TIME00092
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
08-2000
Mexico: Rosario Robles Berlanga presented an initiative to expand the regime of exceptions for legal abortion, known as the Robles Law. The Legislative Assembly of the Federal District added three exceptions to the Penal Code and the Code of Penal Procedure: (1) when the fetus has congenital anomalies or severe genetic defects, (2) when not performing an abortion would endanger the pregnant woman’s health, and (3) when the pregnancy is the result of nonconsensual artificial insemination.

TIME00093

TIME00093
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
08-2000
Mexico: The local legislature of Guanajuato reformed its Penal Code to criminalize abortion in cases of rape. The reform was vetoed by the state governor in the wake of civil society mobilization against the proposed change.

TIME00094

TIME00094
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Litigation
09-2000
Mexico: The Federal District’s abortion reform was challenged before the Supreme Court via Action of Unconstitutionality 10/2000 filed by congressional deputies of the PAN and the Green Party.

TIME00095

TIME00095
Latin America and the Caribbean
Costa Rica
No
Critical event
Restrict
Court ruling
10-2000
Costa Rica: Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court ruled IVF unconstitutional, annulling Executive Decree No. 24029-S from February 3, 1995. According to the court, IVF threatens human life.

TIME00096

TIME00096
North America
USA
No
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
10-2000
USA: The government approved mifepristone, also known as RU-486.

TIME00097

TIME00097
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
01-2001
Argentina: The Supreme Court authorized the labor induction of an anencephalic fetus (in theory, the pregnant woman would have been required to file an application for abortion, but due to the time that this process would take, the Supreme Court ruled that it could intervene).

TIME00098

TIME00098
Latin America and the Caribbean
Dominican Republic
No
Critical event
Restrict
Legal reform
01-2001
Dominican Republic: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress.Dominican Republic: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress.Dominican Republic: National “Day of the Unborn” recognized by Congress.

TIME00099

TIME00099
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-2001
Peru: General elections (president and Congress).

TIME00100

TIME00100
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-2001
Brazil: PL 4917 – Presentation of a bill including an item in article 1 of Law No. 8072 identifying abortion as an abominable crime and introducing changes to articles 124, 125, and 126 of the Penal Code.

TIME00061

TIME00061
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
01-1997
Colombia: Constitutional Court issued Sentence C-013/97 upholding its position on abortion, as raised in Sentence C-133/94.

TIME00062

TIME00062
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
04-1997
Brazil: PL 2929 – Presentation of a bill allowing abortion for women raped by relatives.

TIME00063

TIME00063
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
04-1997
Colombia: Constitutional Court issued Sentence C-213/97 upholding its position on abortion, as raised in Sentence C-133/94.

TIME00064

TIME00064
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
04-1997
El Salvador: Congress adopted reforms to the Penal Code to eliminate all exceptions to the country’s abortion prohibition.

TIME00065

TIME00065
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
07-1997
Mexico: Election of the first head of government of the Federal District, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas of the left-wing opposition party Partido de la Revolución Democrática, with a majority in Congress.

TIME00066

TIME00066
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
07-1997
Peru: Enactment of the new health code requiring physicians to report abortion cases, including those of women seeking post-abortion care.

TIME00067

TIME00067
Catholic organizations
Global
No
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
10-1997
World Meeting of Families held in Rio do Janeiro.

TIME00068

TIME00068
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
11-1997
Brazil: Resolution 258 of 1997 issued by the National Health Council including abortion care within the universal health care system.

TIME00069

TIME00069
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
04-1998
Brazil: Resolution 258/1997 issued by the Ministry of Health recommending the regulation of legal abortion nationwide.

TIME00070

TIME00070
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
04-1998
El Salvador: The country’s absolute ban on abortion entered into force on April 20, 1998, one year after the adoption of the new Criminal Procedure Code by Congress. In addition to providing new offenses related to abortion and more severe penalties, the new legislation eliminated the exceptions that were recognized before 1997: the therapeutic, ethical and eugenic abortion.

TIME00071

TIME00071
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Litigation
04-1998
El Salvador: Two law students, as part of their dissertation, filed an action of unconstitutionality before the Supreme Court against the 1998 Penal Code.

TIME00072

TIME00072
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Social mobilization
05-1998
Mexico: Creation of the Comisión Ciudadana Contra los Crímenes de Odio por Homofobia.

TIME00073

TIME00073
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-1998
Colombia: Andrés Pastrana Arango elected president in the run-off.

TIME00074

TIME00074
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
08-1998
Brazil: PL 4703 – Presentation of a bill identifying as a heinous crime any abortion procured by a pregnant woman or by a third party with the woman’s consent.

TIME00075

TIME00075
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
09-1998
Brazil: Establishment of Campaign for Women’s Lives (Campanha pela Vida das Mulheres).

TIME00076

TIME00076
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or policy reform
11-1998
Brazil: Technical norm on the “prevention and treatment of damages resulting from sexual violence against women and adolescents” issued by the Ministry of Health requiring all public health facilities to provide legal abortions in cases of rape, and establishing the requirement that victims present a police report.

TIME00077

TIME00077
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
12-1998
Argentina: Official recognition of national “Day of the Unborn.” The first official celebration took place on March 25, 1999.

TIME00078

TIME00078
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Constitutional reform
01-1999
El Salvador: The National Assembly approved the reform of article 1 of the Constitution confirming the protection of the right to life from the moment of conception. El Salvador: The National Assembly approved the reform of article 1 of the Constitution confirming the protection of the right to life from the moment of conception. El Salvador: The National Assembly approved the reform of article 1 of the Constitution confirming the protection of the right to life from the moment of conception. El Salvador: The National Assembly approved the reform of article 1 of the Constitution confirming the protection of the right to life from the moment of conception. El Salvador: The National Assembly approved the reform of article 1 of the Constitution confirming the protection of the right to life from the moment of conception.

TIME00079

TIME00079
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
03-1999
Brazil: PL 343 – Presentation of a bill establishing “Abortion Prevention Week” and other related measures.

TIME00080

TIME00080
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
04-1999
Brazil: PL 605 – Presentation of a bill obligating police personnel to inform rape victims of the right to legal abortion.

TIME00041

TIME00041
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
01-1995
Brazil: Fernando Henrique Cardoso elected president.

TIME00042

TIME00042
Latin America and the Caribbean
Costa Rica
No
Critical event
Advance
Legal reform
02-1995
Costa Rica: Ministry of Health issued Executive Decree No. 24029-S regulating and authorizing IVF.

TIME00043

TIME00043
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
03-1995
Brazil: PL 176 – Presentation of a bill providing grounds for abortion within the first 90 days of pregnancy.

TIME00044

TIME00044
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
03-1995
Brazil: PEC 25 – Proposed amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing the inviolability of the right to life from the moment of conception.

TIME00045

TIME00045
Catholic organizations
Vatican
No
Critical event
Restrict
Encyclical Letter
03-1995
Encyclical letter “Evangelium Vitae” issued by Pope John Paul II on the value and inviolability of human life.

TIME00046

TIME00046
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-1995
Peru: General elections (president and Congress). Alberto Fujimori elected president.

TIME00047

TIME00047
Latin America and the Caribbean
Argentina
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
05-1995
Argentina: Carlos Saúl Menem re-elected president.

TIME00048

TIME00048
Latin America and the Caribbean
Guyana
No
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
06-1995
Guyana: Enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, which permits abortion without restriction as to reason during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy; on broad grounds between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy, such as if the pregnancy resulted from a contraception failure or would put the woman’s mental health at risk; and thereafter on specific grounds.

TIME00049

TIME00049
Catholic organizations
Vatican
No
Critical event
Restrict
Social mobilization
06-1995
Pope John Paul II issued a letter to women addressing sexual violence and abortion: “In contrast to these sorts of perversion, what great appreciation must be shown to those women who, with a heroic love for the child they have conceived, proceed with a pregnancy resulting from the injustice of rape. Here we are thinking of atrocities perpetrated not only in situations of war, still so common in the world, but also in societies which are blessed by prosperity and peace and yet are often corrupted by a culture of hedonistic permissiveness which aggravates tendencies to aggressive male behavior. In these cases the choice to have an abortion always remains a grave sin. But before being something to blame on the woman, it is a crime for which guilt needs to be attributed to men and to the complicity of the general social environment.”

TIME00050

TIME00050
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Legal reform
08-1995
Peru: Ministerial Resolution No. 572-95-SA/DM establishing that free family planning services must be provided free of charge in public health facilities.

TIME00051

TIME00051
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
09-1995
Brazil: PL 999 – Presentation of a bill recognizing the inviolability of the right to life, defining euthanasia and abortion as heinous crimes, and interpreting article 226(7) of the Constitution, among other aspects.

TIME00052

TIME00052
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Legal reform
09-1995
Peru: Voluntary surgical contraception legalized.

TIME00053

TIME00053
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
12-1995
Colombia: Constitutional Court issued Sentence C-591/95 stating that the legal existence of subjects begins at the time of birth but that life begins from the moment of conception.

TIME00054

TIME00054
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
02-1996
Brazil: PL 2118 – Presentation of a bill authorizing medical professionals’ refusal to perform abortion.

TIME00055

TIME00055
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Executive decree or Executive decree or policy reform
04-1996
Brazil: Decree 001/96 The Federal District approved regulations for legal abortion.

TIME00056

TIME00056
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Legal reform
05-1996
Brazil: PL 1956 – Presentation of a bill authorizing abortion when the fetus has malformations incompatible with life or incurable degenerative disease, preceded by medical indication, or when the impossibility of extrauterine life is observed through scientific means.

TIME00057

TIME00057
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
05-1996
Colombia: Women’s organizations of Colombia formed the National Network for Sexual and Reproductive rights (Rederdex) to promote the complete decriminalization of abortion.

TIME00058

TIME00058
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
01-1997
Brazil: PL 20/1991 – Presentation of a bill calling for the installation of abortion services in legal cases throughout the public health system. It was approved by the Committee on Constitution and Justice of the Chamber of Deputies.

TIME00059

TIME00059
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
01-1997
Brazil: Creation of the National Pro-Life and Pro-Family Association, an organization that seeks to “defend human life since conception until natural death, without exceptions” and “defend the moral and ethical values of the family.”

TIME00060

TIME00060
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Social mobilization
01-1997
Brazil: More than 300 hundred women from throughout the country gathered for the first national meeting of Women for Life, representing the first step towards the creation of a private organization with the same name, whose goal is to “defend the value and inviolability of life from conception, from the uterus.”

TIME00021

TIME00021
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
10-1991
Brazil: PL 2023 – Presentation of a bill permitting abortion.

TIME00022

TIME00022
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
11-1991
Brazil: PL 2006 – Presentation of a bill protecting pregnant women’s right to abortion.

TIME00023

TIME00023
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
01-1992
Brazil: PL 3280 – Presentation of a bill authorizing abortion up to 24 weeks in cases of serious, irreversible abnormalities when confirmed by a medical report.

TIME00024

TIME00024
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Peace Agreement
01-1992
El Salvador: Adoption of the Chapultepec Peace Accords.

TIME00025

TIME00025
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
02-1992
Brazil: PL 3005 – Presentation of a bill providing further protection to doctors who perform abortions.

TIME00026

TIME00026
North America
USA
No
Abortion
Advance
Court ruling
06-1992
USA: Casey v. Planned Parenthood – Supreme Court decision affirming the decision of Roe v. Wade that women have a right to abortion. Casey also ruled, however, that states may regulate abortion to protect the health of the pregnant woman and the life of the fetus, and may outlaw the abortion of “viable” fetuses.

TIME00027

TIME00027
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
09-1992
Brazil: PL 3166 – Presentation of a bill prohibiting the violation of the privacy of communications, including communications relating to abortion.

TIME00028

TIME00028
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Transitional government
10-1992
Brazil: Itamar Franco became acting president.

TIME00029

TIME00029
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
03-1993
Brazil: PL 3609 – Presentation of a bill authorizing abortion during the first 90 days of pregnancy.

TIME00030

TIME00030
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
07-1993
Brazil: PL 3891 – Presentation of a bill referring to article 226(7) of the Constitution, which deals with family planning.

TIME00031

TIME00031
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Constitutional reform
11-1993
Peru: Adoption of new Constitution recognizing rights from the moment of conception and stating that the National Population Policy shall foster responsible parenthood.

TIME00032

TIME00032
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Court ruling
03-1994
Colombia: Sentence C-133/94 stating that “for the defense of life, which begins at conception, the state is obligated to establish an effective system of legal protection; and given the fundamental nature of the right to life, the implementation of this system must include the adoption of criminal laws within the scope of legislators’ discretion and within the limits of the constitutional order.” This ruling declared constitutional the rule punishing abortion with one to three years of imprisonment.

TIME00033

TIME00033
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-1994
Brazil: PLP 190/1994 – Presentation of a bill referring to the inviolability of the right to life established in article 5 of the Constitution, as well as the interpretation of constitutional article 226(7).

TIME00034

TIME00034
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-1994
Colombia: Ernesto Samper Pizano elected president.

TIME00035

TIME00035
Latin America and the Caribbean
El Salvador
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-1994
El Salvador: Armando Calderón Solfue elected president.

TIME00036

TIME00036
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
07-1994
Brazil: Feminist groups organized different campaigns: Mulheres na Revisão Constitucional – Nenhum Direito a menos!, Campanha Nacional pela Vida das Mulheres, Campanha Nacional pela Regulamentação do Atendimento aos Casos de Aborto previstos em Lei na Rede Pública de Saúde, and Campanha pelos Direitos Humanos das Mulheres.

TIME00037

TIME00037
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
07-1994
Mexico: Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (PRI) elected president.

TIME00038

TIME00038
International bodies
Global
No
Critical event
Advance
Government-level conference commitment/declaration
09-1994
International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, 5-13 September 1994.

TIME00039

TIME00039
Catholic organizations
Global
No
Abortion
Restrict
Social Mobilization
10-1994
First World Meeting of Families held in Rome, October 8-9, 1994.

TIME00040

TIME00040
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Legal reform
10-1994
Mexico: The local congress of the state of Chihuahua reformed article 5 of its constitution to protect life from the moment of conception.

TIME00001

TIME00001
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
04-1990
Brazil: PL 4783 – Presentation of a bill introducing a section in the Penal Code on crimes against the democratic state and humanity; repealing the National Security Act; and providing other devices for crimes that result in abortion.

TIME00002

TIME00002
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
04-1990
Peru: General elections (president and Congress).

TIME00003

TIME00003
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
05-1990
Colombia: Bill presented by Senator Córdoba to decriminalize abortion in certain circumstances, including rape, insemination without consent, and danger to the mother’s life.

TIME00004

TIME00004
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Advance
Social mobilization
05-1990
Colombia: Creation of the Women and the Constituent Assembly Network comprising ten organizations from six cities in the country, with the purpose of presenting women’s demands for the new Constitution. In less than two weeks, ninety women’s groups joined the network.

TIME00005

TIME00005
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
05-1990
Colombia: César Gaviria Trujillo elected president after extremely violent elections marred by the interference of Pablo Escobar’s drug cartel and and paramilitaries; four presidential candidates were killed. During Gaviria’s mandate, the Constitutional Assembly was convened.

TIME00006

TIME00006
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
06-1990
Brazil: PL 5184 – Presentation of a bill introducing human reproduction and the environment as a compulsory topic of education in first and second grade, along with other measures.

TIME00007

TIME00007
Latin America and the Caribbean
Peru
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
General election
06-1990
Peru: General elections (president and Congress). Alberto Fujimori elected president in the run-off.

TIME00008

TIME00008
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
07-1990
Brazil: PL 5387 – Presentation of a bill establishing assistance and guidelines for family planning services.

TIME00009

TIME00009
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
12-1990
Brazil: PL 5982 – Presentation of a bill allowing doctors to perform abortions for people with HIV, with no time limits.

TIME00010

TIME00010
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
12-1990
Brazil: PL 5983 – Presentation of a bill empowering the National Institute of Health Care to implement family planning activities.

TIME00011

TIME00011
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Constitutional reform
12-1990
Colombia: Drafting of Colombia’s new Constitution, which includes new mechanisms for the protection of human rights, such as the Ombudsman’s Office and the tutela.

TIME00012

TIME00012
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
02-1991
Brazil: PL 20 – Presentation of a bill requiring the public health system to provide abortion in cases foreseen in the Penal Code.

TIME00013

TIME00013
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
05-1991
Brazil: PL 1135 – Presentation of a bill deleting an article criminalizing abortion if caused by a pregnant woman or performed with her consent (liberalization of abortion).

TIME00014

TIME00014
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
05-1991
Brazil: PL 667 – Bill presented by Deputy Inocêncio Oliveira authorizing the free distribution of contraceptive pills.

TIME00015

TIME00015
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
06-1991
Brazil: PL 1097 – Presentation of a bill permitting abortion up to 10 weeks under certain circumstances.

TIME00016

TIME00016
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-1991
Brazil: PL 1104 – Presentation of a bill stating that it will not be considered a fault when a medical professional leaves the premises in order to avoid having to perform a legal abortion.

TIME00017

TIME00017
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Restrict
Debate over legal reform
06-1991
Brazil: PL 1107 – Presentation of a bill increasing penalties for the practice of abortion.

TIME00018

TIME00018
Latin America and the Caribbean
Colombia
Yes
Critical event
Neutral/neither
Constitutional reform
07-1991
Colombia: Enactment of new Constitution.

TIME00019

TIME00019
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Social mobilization
08-1991
Brazil: Creation of Rede Nacional Feminista de Saúde, Direitos Sexuais e Direitos Reprodutivos

TIME00020

TIME00020
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brazil
Yes
Abortion
Advance
Debate over legal reform
08-1991
Brazil: PL 1174 – Presentation of a bill authorizing abortion when the pregnancy poses risks to the pregnant woman’s life or physical or mental health.